The uniqueness of the Japanese character is the result of : Reading Comprehension (RC)
Demystified · Quizzes · Galleries · Lists · On This Day · Biographies · Newsletters The leader of any gang or conglomerate of yakuza is known as the oyabun (“ boss”; Kobun traditionally take a blood oath of allegiance, and a member who These activities make the relationship between yakuza and police in Japan a. Most Japanese, whatever their status or occupation, are involved in oyabun- kobun relationships. There was an excellent example in a recent election for the . Which of the following is most like the relationship of the oyabun kobun from CL HUM at University of Missouri.
Another interlude of relative liberalism followed World War I, when the democratic idealism of President Woodrow Wilson had an important impact on Japanese intellectuals and, especially students: Again in the early s, nationalism and militarism became dominant, largely as a result of failing economic conditions. Following the end of World War II, substantial changes were undertaken in Japan to liberate the individual from authoritarian restraints. The new democratic value system was accepted by many teachers, students, intellectuals, and old liberals, but it was not immediately embraced by the society as a whole.
Japanese traditions were dominated by group values, and notions of personal freedom and individual rights were unfamiliar. Today, democratic processes are clearly evident in the widespread participation of the Japanese people in social and political life: Values are constantly modified by strong infusions of We stern ideas, both democratic and Marxist.
School textbooks expound democratic principles, emphasizing equality over hierarchy and rationalism over tradition; but in practice these values are often misinterpreted and distorted, particularly by the youth who translate the individualistic and humanistic goals of democracy into egoistic and materialistic ones. Most Japanese people have consciously rejected Confucianism, but vestiges of the old order remain.
An important feature of relationships in many institutions such as political parties, large corporations, and university faculties is the oyabun-kobun or parent-child relation.
A party leader, supervisor, or professor, in return for loyalty, protects those subordinate to him and takes general responsibility for their interests throughout their entire lives, an obligation that sometimes even extends to arranging marriages.
If the sum of a hand exceeds 10, the second digit is used as the total instead, with the exception of 10 which equals 1. If the three cards drawn are pronounced ya-ku-sa in Japanesethe score is 20 and therefore zero, making it the worst possible hand that can be drawn. Isokichi Yoshida — was from the Kitakyushu area and considered the first renowned modern Yakuza.
Recently Shinobu Tsukasa and Kunio Inoue, the bosses of the two most powerful clans in the Yamaguchi-gumi, are from Kyushu. Fukuokathe northernmost part of the island, has the largest number of designated syndicates among all of the prefectures.
Despite uncertainty about the single origin of Yakuza organizations, most modern Yakuza derive from two classifications which emerged in the mid- Edo period — As they began to form organizations of their own, they took over some administrative duties relating to commerce, such as stall allocation and protection of their commercial activities.
Each peddler paid rent in exchange for a stall assignment and protection during the fair. The tekiya were a highly structured and hierarchical group with the oyabun boss at the top and kobun gang members at the bottom. At this time, the oyabun were appointed as supervisors and granted near- samurai status meaning they were allowed the dignity of a surname and two swords. Many small gambling houses cropped up in abandoned temples or shrines at the edge of towns and villages all over Japan.
Most of these gambling houses ran loan sharking businesses for clients, and they usually maintained their own security personnel.
The places themselves, as well as the bakuto, were regarded with disdain by society at large, and much of the undesirable image of the Yakuza originates from bakuto; this includes the name Yakuza itself ya-ku-za, oris a losing hand in Oicho-Kabua form of Baccarat.
Because of the economic situation during the mid-period and the predominance of the merchant class, developing Yakuza groups were composed of misfits and delinquents that had joined or formed Yakuza groups to extort customers in local markets by selling fake or shoddy goods.
The roots of the Yakuza can still be seen today in initiation ceremonieswhich incorporate tekiya or bakuto rituals. Although the modern Yakuza has diversified, some gangs still identify with one group or the other; for example, a gang whose primary source of income is illegal gambling may refer to themselves as bakuto.
The oyabun-kobun relationship is formalized by ceremonial sharing of sake from a single cup. This ritual is not exclusive to the Yakuza—it is also commonly performed in traditional Japanese Shinto weddings, and may have been a part of sworn brotherhood relationships. However, after the war, the Yakuza adapted again. Prospective Yakuza come from all walks of life. The most romantic tales tell how Yakuza accept sons who have been abandoned or exiled by their parents.
How the Yakuza Works
Perhaps because of its lower socio-economic status, numerous Yakuza members come from Burakumin and ethnic Korean backgrounds. Members of Yakuza gangs cut their family ties and transfer their loyalty to the gang boss. They refer to each other as family members - fathers and elder and younger brothers.
When the 3rd Yamaguchi-gumi boss Kazuo Taoka died in the early s, his wife Fumiko took over as boss of Yamaguchi-gumi, albeit for a short time. Yakuza have a complex organizational structure. There is an overall boss of the syndicate, the kumicho, and directly beneath him are the saiko komon senior advisor and so-honbucho headquarters chief. The second in the chain of command is the wakagashira, who governs several gangs in a region with the help of a fuku-honbucho who is himself responsible for several gangs.
The regional gangs themselves are governed by their local boss, the shateigashira. They have their own underlings, including other underbosses, advisors, accountants and enforcers.
Those who have received sake from oyabun are part of the immediate family and ranked in terms of elder or younger brothers. However, each kobun, in turn, can offer sakazuki as oyabun to his underling to form an affiliated organisation, which might in turn form lower ranked organizations.
In the Yamaguchi-gumi, which controls some 2, businesses and Yakuza groups, there are fifth rank subsidiary organizations. Rituals An early example of Irezumi tattoos, s. Yubitsumeor the cutting off of one's finger, is a form of penance or apology.
Upon a first offense, the transgressor must cut off the tip of his left little finger and give the severed portion to his boss. Sometimes an underboss may do this in penance to the oyabun if he wants to spare a member of his own gang from further retaliation. This practice has started to wane amongst the younger members, due to it being an easy identifier for police. The bottom three fingers of each hand are used to grip the sword tightly, with the thumb and index fingers slightly loose. The removal of digits starting with the little finger moving up the hand to the index finger progressively weakens a person's sword grip.
The idea is that a person with a weak sword grip then has to rely more on the group for protection—reducing individual action. In recent years, prosthetic fingertips have been developed to disguise this distinctive appearance. These tattoos, known as irezumi in Japan, are still often "hand-poked", that is, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, hand-made and handheld tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel.
The procedure is expensive, painful, and can take years to complete. This enables them to display their full-body tattoos to each other.
Yakuza - Wikipedia
This is one of the few times that Yakuza members display their tattoos to others, as they normally keep them concealed in public with long-sleeved and high-necked shirts. When new members join, they are often required to remove their trousers as well and reveal any lower body tattoos. Syndicates Four largest syndicates Although Yakuza membership has declined since the implementation of the Anti- Boryokudan Act inaccording to the National Police Agency Japan there are still approximately 39, active Yakuza members in Japan as of Despite more than one decade of police repression, the Yamaguchi-gumi has continued to grow.
From its headquarters in Kobeit directs criminal activities throughout Japan. It is also involved in operations in Asia and the United States.
Shinobu Tsukasaalso known as Kenichi Shinoda, is the Yamaguchi-gumi's current oyabun. He follows an expansionist policy, and has increased operations in Tokyo which has not traditionally been the territory of the Yamaguchi-gumi. The Yamaguchi family is successful to the point where its name has become synonymous with Japanese organized crime in many parts of Asia outside Japan.
Many Chinese or Korean persons who do not know the name "Yakuza" would know the name "Yamaguchi-gumi", which is frequently portrayed in gangster films. Sumiyoshi-kai is a confederation of smaller Yakuza groups. Structurally, Sumiyoshi-kai differs from its principal rival, the Yamaguchi-gumiin that it functions like a federation.
The chain of command is more relaxed, and its leadership is distributed among several other members. It is based in the Tokyo-Yokohama area and was one of the first Yakuza families to expand its operations outside of Japan.