The Kite Runner: Pashtuns vs. Hazaras by Daphne Fiallos on Prezi
"They called him "flat-nosed" because of Ali and Hassan's characteristic Hazara Mongoloid features. For years, that was all I knew about the. contribute to the study of ethnie relations among Muslim populations in general Uzbeg, Tajik or Hazara, an Afghan simply is a Pashtun. Originally the term. The conflict between the Hazara and the Pashtun started when Abdur Rahman Khan became the ruler of Afghanistan. Abdur Rahman Khan favored the Pashtun .
Hazara continued to face severe social, economic and political discrimination through most of the 20th century. The Afghan government captured and executed him later, along with several of his innocent family members. In particular, in the s, during Zahir Shah 's rule, a revolt took place against new taxes that were exclusively imposed on the Hazara. The Kuchi nomads meanwhile not only were exempted from taxes, but also received allowances from the Afghan government.
In response, the central government sent a force to subdue the region and later removed the taxes. He was killed by the Taliban in During the Soviet—Afghan Warthe Hazarajat region did not see as much heavy fighting as other regions of Afghanistan.
Afghanistan: Who are the Hazaras? | Taliban | Al Jazeera
However, rival Hazara political factions fought. Byafter severe fighting, the secularist groups lost all their power to the Islamists.
The Bamiyan Valleythe site of the Buddhas of Bamiyan. As the Soviets withdrew inthe Islamist groups felt the need to broaden their political appeal and turned their focus to Hazara ethnic nationalism. In with the fall of Kabulthe Harakat-i Islami took sides with Burhanuddin Rabbani 's government while the Hizb-i-Wahdat took sides with the opposition.
The Hizb-i-Wahdat was eventually forced out of Kabul in when the Taliban movement captured and killed their leader Abdul Ali Mazari. With the Taliban's capture of Kabul inall the Hazara groups united with the new Northern Alliance against the common new enemy. However, it was too late and despite the fierce resistance Hazarajat fell to the Taliban by The Taliban had Hazarajat totally isolated from the rest of the world going as far as not allowing the United Nations to deliver food to the provinces of BamiyanGhorWardakand Daykundi.
Sultan Ali Kishtmanda Hazara, served as prime minister of Afghanistan from — with one brief interruption in Particularly after their capture of Mazar-i-Sharif inwhere after a massive killing of some 8, civilians, the Taliban openly declared that the Hazara would be targeted.
Many Hazara have become leaders in today's[ when? Since ousting the Taliban in latebillions of dollars have poured into Afghanistan for reconstruction and several large-scale reconstruction projects took place in Afghanistan from August For example, there have been more than kilometers of road pavement completed across Afghanistan, of which little was done in central Afghanistan Hazarajat.
On the other hand, the Band-e Amir in the Bamyan Province became the first national park of Afghanistan. The road from Kabul to Bamyan was also built, along with new police stations, government institutions, hospitals, and schools in the Bamyan ProvinceDaykundi Provinceand the others.
The first ski resort of Afghanistan was also established in Bamyan Province. In the latter case, the older wife in polygamous marriages succeeds the deceased husband until the eldest sun reaches maturity. Educated Hazara women, in particular, those who returned from exile in Iran are often as active as men in civic and political arenas. Hazara families are eager to educate their daughters.
Difference between Hazara and Pashtun
UN officials in Bamyan, the largest town in Hazarajat as well as the name of the province surrounding ithave reported that since the collapse of Taliban rule in lateaid agencies have scrambled to build schools and have succeeded in attracting qualified female teachers to meet the demand. Historical context Hazaras are believed to have settled in Afghanistan at least as far back as the thirteenth century. While President Karzai did appoint six Hazaras to his cabinet, there appears to be no reduction in the discrimination facing the majority of the Hazara population of Afghanistan.
During the resistance in the mids, Hazaras maintained their own resistance group, some of which had ties with Iran. As an ethnic group, Hazaras have always lived on the edge of economic survival in Afghanistan.
The recent persecution of Hazaras was not instigated by the Taliban but had existed for centuries — during which Hazaras were driven out of their lands, sold as slaves and lacked access to the essential services otherwise available to the majority of the population. As the Pashtun Rahman started to extend his influence from Kabul by force to other parts of the country, the Hazaras were the first ethnic group to revolt against his expansionism.
Pashtun tribes were sent to the central highlands to crush the revolt. Thousands of Hazara men were killed, their women and children taken as slaves, and their lands occupied.
Those who survived the initial period of the raids managed to escape to the north while a significant number fled to then British India.
Afghanistan: Who are the Hazaras?
Apart from Pashtuns, Uzbeks are also thought to have conducted slave raids on the Hazaras in Bamyan and elsewhere. Hazarajat was occupied by Rahman in and it is estimated that 60 per cent of the Hazara population was wiped out by him. It is suggested that until the s some Sunni religious teachers preached that the killing of Hazaras was a key to paradise. Economically Hazarajat was kept undeveloped with no roads, schools or clinics. The Hazaras have typically voiced their dissent to the policies of overt discrimination against them since the s through a unified opposition movement; the main Hazara party, Hizb-e Wahdat Party of Unitywas established in Inafter the Mujahidin took power, fighting between the various groups broke out.
Amnesty International subsequently reported the killing of many unarmed civilians and the rape of many Hazara women. In Februaryhundreds of Hazara residents in the Afshar district of West Kabul were massacred by government forces under the direction of Rabbani and Massoud, joined by Ittehad-i-Islami.
The fighting saw the utter devastation of large areas of Kabul, particularly those inhabited by Hazaras. BetweenAbdul Ali Mazari became the first political leader to speak out at the international level for, and on behalf of Hazaras, putting their case to the UN and the international community.
Mazari signed an agreement with the Taliban leadership in but was brutally murdered by them in In the years that followed, Hazaras faced particularly severe repression and persecution, including a series of mass killings in northern Afghanistan, where thousands of Hazaras lost their lives or were forced to flee their homes. Consequently, Hazaras formed part of the Northern Alliance forces that opposed the Taliban and took power after the Taliban fell in A key moment in recent Hazara history is the destruction of the Bamyan Buddhas by the Taliban in The giant Buddha statues had long been central to the identity of the Hazara community.
Although not built by the Hazaras themselves, who only came to have an ethnolinguistic identity based in the region some centuries later, they have their own myths associated with the statues, unrelated to Buddhism. In Hazara folklore, the statues are of a star-crossed couple Salsal and Shahmama, whose doomed love ends tragically in both their deaths.
The two remain forever separated, petrified in stone, looking across the Bamyan valley. However, the statues, long celebrated internationally, achieved less welcome attention in when the Taliban dynamited them, leaving behind little more than empty voids. The destruction was, in fact, part of a larger campaign by the Taliban to suppress the rights and identity of Hazaras. International debate continues to rage regarding whether the statues should be reconstructed or not. However, the discussions often disregard the fact that the sculptures are an integral part of Hazara culture and do not always consider the need to involve local communities in any future decisions concerning them.