Articles from Eastport Health Care Staff | Washington County, Maine
Convincing and Probable Relationships between Dietary and Lifestyle Factors . Important health benefits have even been associated with walking for half an hour The following list discusses six aspects of diet for which strong evidence. Smoking, obesity, alcohol and drugs – so-called 'lifestyle' diseases Aisha Majid , Global health security data journalist There is now a clear understanding of the relationship between NCDs and poverty in many places, said Ms Dain. “ The UK has lots of good practices and examples such as plain. Chronic Disease As a Result of Poor Lifestyle Choices: a health care article by Pam Koenig, FNP. Back to List of Articles Moreover, millions of people are well aware of the link between poor health habits and illness and choose to.
Chronic Disease Prevention In this section, we briefly review dietary and lifestyle changes that reduce the incidence of chronic disease. The potential magnitude of benefit is also discussed. Recommended Lifestyle Changes Specific changes in diet and lifestyle and likely benefits are summarized in table These relationships and supporting evidence are summarized here.
Avoid Tobacco Use Avoidance of smoking by preventing initiation or by cessation for those who already smoke is the single most important way to prevent CVD and cancer chapter Avoiding the use of smokeless tobacco will also prevent a good deal of oral cancer.
Maintain a Healthy Weight Obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide chapter Even though obesity—a body mass index BMI of 30 or greater—has received more attention than overweight, overweight BMI of 25 to 30 is typically even more prevalent and also confers elevated risks of many diseases. For example, overweight people experience a two- to threefold elevation in the risks of CAD and hypertension and a more than tenfold increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes compared with lean individuals BMI less than 23 Willett, Dietz, and Colditz Both overweight and obese people also experience elevated mortality from cancers of the colon, breast postmenopausalkidney, endometrium, and other sites Calle and others Many people with a BMI of less than 25 have gained substantial weight since they were young adults and are also at increased risk of these diseases, even though they are not technically overweight Willett, Dietz, and Colditz Hu and others found that the prevalence of hypertension was nearly five times greater for those with a BMI of approximately 25 than for the leanest people.
Because many Asians are experiencing adverse consequences of excess body fat with a BMI of less than 25, the definition of overweight for Asia has recently been expanded to include a BMI of 23 to 25 WHO For most people, unless obviously malnourished as an adolescent or young adult, bodyweight should ideally not increase by more than 2 or 3 kilograms after age 20 to maintain optimal health Willett, Dietz, and Colditz Thus, a desirable weight for most people should be within the BMI range of Additional valuable information can be obtained by measuring waist circumference, which reflects abdominal fat accumulation.
A waist circumference of approximately centimeters for men and 88 centimeters for women has been used as the criterion for the upper limit of the healthy range in the United States, but for many people this extent of abdominal fat would be far above optimal.
Because abdominal circumference is easily assessed, even where scales may not be available, further work to develop locally appropriate criteria could be worthwhile. In the meantime, increases of more than 5 centimeters can be used as a basis for recommending changes in activity patterns and diet. Views about the causes of obesity and ways to prevent or reduce it have been controversial. Diets low in fat and high in carbohydrates were believed to limit caloric intake spontaneously and thus to control adiposity, but such diets have not reduced bodyweight in trials that have lasted for a year or more Willett and Leibel Some researchers have suggested that diets with a high energy density, referring to the amount of energy per volume, offer an alternative explanation for the observed increases in obesity Swinburn and othersbut long-term studies have not examined this theory.
Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute significantly to the overconsumption of calories, in part because calories in fluid form appear to be poorly regulated by the body E. Bell, Roe, and Rolls In children, an increase in soda consumption of one serving per day was associated with an odds ratio of 1.
Reductions in dietary fiber and increases in the dietary glycemic load large amounts of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates from refined starches and sugar may also contribute to obesity Ebbeling and others ; Swinburn and others Aspects of the food supply unrelated to its macronutrient composition are also likely to be contributing to the global rise in obesity. Inexpensive food energy from refined grains, sugar, and vegetable oils has become extremely plentiful in most countries.
Food manufacturers and suppliers use carefully researched methods to make products based on these cheap ingredients maximally convenient and attractive. Maintain Daily Physical Activity and Limit Television Watching Contemporary life in developed nations has markedly reduced people's opportunities to expend energy, whether in moving from place to place, in the work environment, or at home Koplan and Dietz Dramatic reductions in physical activity are also occurring in developing countries because of urbanization, increased availability of motorized transportation to replace walking and bicycle riding, and mechanization of labor.
However, regular physical activity is a key element in weight control and prevention of obesity IARC ; Swinburn and others For example, among middle-aged West African women, more walking was associated with a three-unit lower BMI Sobngwi, Gautier, and Mbanyaand in China, car owners are 80 percent more likely to be obese Hu In addition to its key role in maintaining a healthy weight, regular physical activity reduces the risk of CAD, stroke, type 2 diabetes, colon and breast cancer, osteoporotic fractures, osteoarthritis, depression, and erectile dysfunction table Important health benefits have even been associated with walking for half an hour per day, but greater reductions in risk are seen with longer durations of physical activity and more intense activity.
The number of hours of television watched per day is associated with increased obesity rates among both children and adults Hernandez and others ; Ruangdaraganon and others and with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and gallstones F.
Hu, Leitzmann, and others ; Leitzmann and others This association is likely attributable both to reduced physical activity and to increased consumption of foods and beverages high in calories, which are typically those promoted on television. Decreases in television watching reduce weight Robinsonand the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum of two hours of television watching per day. Eat a Healthy Diet Medical experts have long recognized the effects of diet on the risk of CVD, but the relationship between diet and many other conditions, including specific cancers, diabetes, cataracts, macular degeneration, cholelithiasis, renal stones, dental disease, and birth defects, have been documented more recently.
The following list discusses six aspects of diet for which strong evidence indicates important health implications table Replace saturated and trans fats with unsaturated fats, including sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats will reduce the risk of CAD F. Also, polyunsaturated fats including the long-chain omega-3 fish oils and probably alpha-linoleic acid, the primary plant omega-3 fatty acid can prevent ventricular arrhythmias and thereby reduce fatal CAD.
In a case-control study in Costa Rica, where fish intake was extremely low, the risk of myocardial infarction was 80 percent lower in those with the highest alpha-linoleic acid intake Baylin and others Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids are suboptimal in many populations, particularly if fish intake is low and the primary oils consumed are low in omega-3 fatty acids for example, partially hydrogenated soybean, corn, sunflower, or palm oil.
These findings have major implications, because changes in the type of oil used for food preparation are often quite feasible and not expensive. Trans fatty acids produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils have uniquely adverse effects on blood lipids F.
Hu and Willett ; on a gram-for-gram basis, both the effects on blood lipids and the relationship with CAD risk are considerably more adverse than for saturated fat. In many developing countries, trans fat consumption is high because partially hydrogenated soybean oil is among the cheapest fats available. In South Asia, vegetable ghee, which has largely replaced traditional ghee, contains approximately 50 percent trans fatty acids Ascherio and others Independent of other risk factors, higher intakes of trans fat and lower intakes of polyunsaturated fat increase risk of type 2 diabetes F.
Hu, van Dam, and Liu Ensure generous consumption of fruits and vegetables and adequate folic acid intake.
Strong evidence indicates that high intakes of fruits and vegetables will reduce the risk of CAD and stroke Conlin Some of this benefit is mediated by higher intakes of potassium, but folic acid probably also plays a role F. Hu and Willett Supplementation with folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defect pregnancies.
Substantial evidence also suggests that low folic acid intake is associated with greater risk of colon—and possibly breast—cancer and that use of multiple vitamins containing folic acid reduces the risk of these cancers Giovannucci Findings relating folic acid intake to CVD and some cancers have major implications for many parts of the developing world.
Impact of Lifestyle on Health
In many areas, consumption of fruits and vegetables is low. For example, in northern China, approximately half the adult population is deficient in folic acid Hao and others Consume cereal products in their whole-grain, high-fiber form. Consuming grains in a whole-grain, high-fiber form has double benefits. First, consumption of fiber from cereal products has consistently been associated with lower risks of CAD and type 2 diabetes F.
Hu, van Dam, and Liu ; F. Hu and Willettwhich may be because of both the fiber itself and the vitamins and minerals naturally present in whole grains. High consumption of refined starches exacerbates the metabolic syndrome and is associated with higher risks of CAD F.
Hu and Willett and type 2 diabetes F. Second, higher consumption of dietary fiber also appears to facilitate weight control Swinburn and others and helps prevent constipation. Limit consumption of sugar and sugar-based beverages. Sugar free sugars refined from sugarcane or sugar beets and high-fructose corn sweeteners has no nutritional value except for calories and, thus, has negative health implications for those at risk of overweight.
Furthermore, sugar contributes to the dietary glycemic load, which exacerbates the metabolic syndrome and is related to the risk of diabetes and CAD F. Hu and Willett ; Schulze and others WHO has suggested an upper limit of 10 percent of energy from sugar, but lower intakes are usually desirable because of the adverse metabolic effects and empty calories. Limit excessive caloric intake from any source.
Given the importance of obesity and overweight in the causation of many chronic diseases, avoiding excessive consumption of energy from any source is fundamentally important. Because calories consumed as beverages are less well-regulated than calories from solid food, limiting the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is particularly important. The principle justification for limiting sodium is its effect on blood pressure, a major risk factor for stroke and coronary disease chapter WHO has suggested an upper limit of 1.
Potential of Dietary and Lifestyle Factors to Prevent Chronic Diseases Several lines of evidence indicate that realistic modifications of diet and lifestyle can prevent most CAD, stroke, diabetes, colon cancer, and smoking-related cancers. Less progress has been made in identifying practically modifiable causes of breast and prostate cancers.
One line of evidence is based on declines in CAD in countries that have implemented preventive programs. The most dramatic example is that of Finland box Finland provides one of the best-documented examples of a community intervention.
InFinland had the world's highest CVD mortality rate. Smoking causes emphysema and chronic bronchitis COPD by damaging airways and small air sacs in the lungs.
Smoking is also a major cause of throat, bladder, voice box, liver, pancreas, stomach, kidney and colorectal cancers. The challenges to public health agencies, healthcare providers and the health care system posed by people with multiple chronic conditions are tremendous.
The current focus is providing information on the impact of unhealthy lifestyle choices as risk factors for preventable chronic diseases and encouraging individual responsibility for one's health.
Impact of Lifestyle on Health
Many towns across the country are engaged in projects to implement systems and environmental change in schools, communities, and workplaces. The overall goal is replacing unhealthy habits with healthy choices to maintain wellness and prevent illness and disease. Small businesses in Eastport along with Eastport Health Care have engaged in Healthy Maine Streets, a wellness program to improve workforce health, decrease medical and hospital visits, reduce workplace absenteeism and increase work productivity.
One can transition to a healthy lifestyle through conscientious behavior changes like increasing physical activity and exercise, consuming unprocessed, whole, nutritional foods, engaging in a smoking cessation program, and using stress management techniques such as yoga, meditation and behavioral health coaching.
Medical studies show that adults with chronic diseases can experience rapid, significant and sustainable improvements in their health by taking responsibility for and self-managing their chronic illnesses. In so doing people can increase their lifespan and enjoy a better quality of life. This health center is a Health Center Program grantee under 42 U.
Diet is the greatest factor in lifestyle and has a direct and positive relation with health. Poor diet and its consequences like obesity is the common healthy problem in urban societies. Unhealthy lifestyle can be measured by BMI. Urban lifestyle leads to the nutrition problems like using fast foods and poor foods, increasing problems like cardiovascular 5. For treating general health problems, the exercise is included in life style 6.
The continuous exercise along with a healthy diet increases the health. Some studies stress on the relation of active life style with happiness 78. One of the bases of healthy life is the sleep.
Sleep cannot be apart from life. Sleep disorders have several social, psychological, economical and healthy consequences. Lifestyle may effect on sleep and sleep has a clear influence on mental and physical health 9. Normal sex relation is necessary in healthy life. Dysfunction of sex relation is the problem of most of societies and it has a significant effect on mental and physical health.
It can be said that dysfunctional sex relation may result in various family problems or sex related illnesses like; AIDS Substance abuse: Addiction is considered as an unhealthy life style.
Smoking and using other substance may result in various problems; cardiovascular disease, asthma, cancer, brain injury. It is a common form of using medication in Iran and it is considered as an unhealthy life style.
Unhealthy behaviors in using medication are as followed: Application of modern technologies: