The JDK Test Framework: Tag Language Specification
The default timeout is two minutes. If an action does not finish before the timeout expires, it fails. The timeout period applies to the entire action, not to particular steps of the action. A value of zero means there is no timeout. The action succeeds only if the output matches the content of the file.
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This option forces the action to be run in a fresh VM subprocess. Use this option if you need to specify VM options, or if the action might crash the VM.
If the harness has been instructed to run only automatic actions, then this action will be skipped and will be considered to have passed. If no option value is given, then the harness assumes that the test itself will handle whatever user interaction is necessary. If "yesno" is given, then the harness will ask the user whether the action is to pass or fail. If "done" is given, then the harness will wait until the user indicates that the test has completed.
When the harness queries the user it does so in a manner appropriate to the action type; e. In the failure case, some harnesses may provide a way for the user to submit text describing the failure. This definition has the effect of making the given file the sole source of security policies to be used by the security manager. In particular, the system security policy and the user's security policy will be ignored. Property expansion will be performed in the policy file as usual; in particular, the "test.
SecurityManager to be installed as the security manager. An appropriate build tag should be provided to ensure that the class is compiled. Some actions take one or more class names as arguments.
Each such argument is the name of a class, not the name of a class file, so the ". A class name may be specified in one of the following ways: Foo" a module name followed by either module-info or a fully qualified class name: Foo" If a class in a non-Java package is specified, then the source file for that class must be in the corresponding directory relative to the directory containing the defining file of the test.
Some actions take either class names or class-name wildcards as arguments.
- The JDK Test Framework: Tag Language Specification
A class-name wildcard can be specified in one of the following ways: Each argument may be a class name, as described above, or a class-name wildcard. To locate a source file for a named class, the harness takes the first matching file found by looking in the test-source directory and then in each appropriate directory of the library path list. To locate the source files denoted by a wildcard, the harness evaluates the wildcard relative to test-source directory and relative to each directory of the library path list, taking all matches.
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Each discovered class will be compiled if its corresponding class file does not exist or is older than its source file. Intended primarily for use before main and applet actions that require more than one class to be compiled. Passes only if the compiler finishes without error, or if none of the specified classes need to be compiled. It is an error for a build action to be the last action in a test description. Each argument may be a class name or a class-name wildcard.
Intended primarily for compiler tests. Source file names should be relative pathnames using forward slashes and ". Intended primarily for compiler tests; non-compiler tests should generally use build actions. The timeout period, if specified, applies to the entire compile action, not to the compilation of each individual source file.
Passes only if the compiler finishes without error. In this one situation, the source files must be in a subdirectory named for the module, relative to the directory containing the defining file of the test.
Neither the module directory nor the list of source files may contain a module-info. User modules can be compiled by placing the code for the modules in subdirectories named for the modules. Each directory should have a corresponding module-info. No other options are required: To avoid confusion, it is highly recommended that tests containing user modules should be placed in their own directory, and should not contain any other directories apart from the directories used to contain module source code.
The use of the -classpath and -sourcepath options as arguments to the compile action is discouraged; the library tag is often more appropriate. Passes only if the main method returns normally and does not cause an exception to be thrown, from the main thread or from any other thread. A "main" action is considered to be finished when the main method returns; if a test involves multiple threads, some synchronization may be necessary to ensure that the other threads finish their work before the thread running the main method returns.Early days of Unix and design of sh by Stephen R. Bourne
The setting of the system properties "java. Although superficially similar to run main, this is for use when it is desirable to perform additional setup or configuration before running the class containing the actual test code, possibly in a child VM. Roughly equivalent to " run main org. No additional arguments are allowed. Passes only if the main method of JUnitCore returns normally and does not cause an exception to be thrown, from the main thread or from any other thread.
As with a "main" action, a "junit" action is considered to be finished when the main method of JUnitCore returns. In order to use a "junit" action, the JUnit 4. This action executes all the tests in a single JUnit test file. All the tests in that one file will be grouped as a single jtreg test for reporting purposes.
Passes only if the main method of TestNG returns normally and does not cause an exception to be thrown, from the main thread or from any other thread. As with a "main" action, a "testng" action is considered to be finished when the main method of TestNG returns.
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In order to use a "testng" action, the TestNG jar file may need to be placed manually alongside the jtreg and javatest jar files in the jtreg installation. This action executes all the tests in a single TestNG test file. See below for details on how to set up a directory containing only standard TestNG tests. Intended primarily for tests of graphics functionality; tests of the appletviewer itself can be written using shell actions. In this case the HTML file itself will be displayed; it should contain any instructions for the user.
The harness will skip this action, and treat it as though it had passed, when instructed to run only automatic tests. The applet will be run by invoking its init, start, and setVisible true methods in that orderwaiting for the user to click on "pass" or "fail", and then invoking the applet's stop and destroy methods in that order. The applet will be run by invoking its init, start, and setVisible true methods in that orderwaiting for the user to click on "done", and then invoking the applet's stop and destroy methods in that order.
Passes only if the script exits with an exit status of 0. On Windows systems, the following variables will be propagated if they are set: In addition, a number of test-specific environment variables will be set, giving details about the test itself. See Appendix 2 for the complete list of these variables. A test harness may treat this test as a failure or as some other type of error.
These tokens may be displayed by the harness in some appropriate fashion. When so configured, all Java source files in or under the directory are considered to be defining files, and thus considered to be a test to be executed.
If a file has a leading comment, the comment may only contain informative tags and declarative tags, and may not contain any action tags. Each test within the set is deemed to have any implicit build action specifying all the Java source files in the set, followed by an implicit action to execute the test as a TestNG test.
Each test is run in a context that defines the following directories. Working directory The directory in which the harness is running. Source directory The directory containing the defining file of the test, as well as any associated files e. Generally not the same as the working directory.
Class directory The directory into which class files compiled from source files in the source directory are compiled.
May be the source directory, or may be some other directory. Java home directory The directory containing the JDK build or release being tested. A test may create temporary files in the working directory as needed.
Test harnesses will typically delete such files before or after each test is run. In order to work properly when run standalone, however, tests should not rely upon this behavior. This can be done having each test's initialization code delete any files that the test may have created in a previous invocation. For each source directory in the test hierarchy there is a corresponding class directory, which may or may not the same as the source directory.
Classes in different source directories are, therefore, in different name spaces and their names will not collide. Simple test harnesses may place class files in source directories, while more sophisticated harnesses will generally place class files in a parallel directory hierarchy. The directory names do not have trailing separators.
The names of the source and class directories of a test are made available to main and applet actions via the system properties "test. The syntax is simple and straightforward, similar to that of invoking and chaining together utilities at the command line, and there are only a few "rules" to learn. Most short scripts work right the first time, and debugging even the longer ones is straightforward. A shell script is a "quick and dirty" method of prototyping a complex application.
Getting even a limited subset of the functionality to work in a shell script is often a useful first stage in project development.
Shell scripting hearkens back to the classic UNIX philosophy of breaking complex projects into simpler subtasks, of chaining together components and utilities.
Many consider this a better, or at least more esthetically pleasing approach to problem solving than using one of the new generation of high powered all-in-one languages, such as Perl, which attempt to be all things to all people, but at the cost of forcing you to alter your thinking processes to fit the tool.
According to Herbert Mayer"a useful language needs arrays, pointers, and a generic mechanism for building data structures. When not to use shell scripts Resource-intensive tasks, especially where speed is a factor sorting, hashing, etc. Even then, prototyping the application as a shell script might still be a useful development step.
Bash has become a de facto standard for shell scripting on all flavors of UNIX. Most of the principles this book covers apply equally well to scripting with other shells, such as the Korn Shell, from which Bash derives some of its features,  and the C Shell and its variants. Note that C Shell programming is not recommended due to certain inherent problems, as pointed out in an October, Usenet post by Tom Christiansen.