Hinduism, marriage and mental illness
It clearly describes the duty of Husband and Wife for maintaining a healthy marriage. Duties of a Wife. Atharvaveda mantra 1/14/1 – Her husband's house should. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. according to Satpatha Brahmana “The wife is verily the half of the husband. .. Despite the presence of severe mental illness parents are determined to. gives the status of husband and wife to the married couple. According to ancient Hindu religious . unapproved forms of marriage was that it determined the.
The additional share deducted for the eldest shall be one-twentieth of the estate and the best of all chattels, for the middlemost half of that, but for the youngest one-fourth. Both the eldest and the youngest shall take their shares according to the rule just stated each of those who are between the eldest and the youngest, shall have the share prescribed for the middlemost. Among the goods of every kind the eldest shall take the best articleand even a single chattel which is particularly good, as well as the best of ten animals.
But among brothers equally skilled in their occupations, there is no additional share, consisting of the best animal among ten; some trifle only shall be given to the eldest as a token of respect. If additional shares are thus deducted, one must allot equal shares out of the residue to each ; but if no deduction is made, the allotment of the shares among them shall be made in the following manner. Let the eldest son take one share in excess, the brother born next after him one share and a half, the younger ones one share each; thus the law is settled.
But to the maiden sisters the brothers shall severally give portions out of their shares, each out of his share one-fourth part; those who refuse to give itwill become outcasts. Let him never divide the value of a single goat or sheep, or a single beast with uncloven hoofs; it is prescribed that a single goat or sheep remaining after an equal division, belongs to the eldest alone. If a younger brother begets a son on the wife of the elder, the division must then be made equally; this the law is settled.
The representative the son begotten on the wife is not invested with the right of the principal the eldest brother to an additional share ; the principal became a father on the procreation of a son by his younger brother ; hence one should give a share to the son begotten on the wife of the elder brother according to the rule stated above.
If there be a doubt, how the division shall be made, in case the younger son is born of the elder wife and the elder son of the younger wife, Then the son born of the first wife shall take as his additional share one most excellent bull; the next best bulls shall belong to those who are inferior on account of their mothers.
But the eldest son, being born of the eldest wife, shall receive fifteen cows and a bull, the other sons may then take shares according to the seniority of their mothers; that is a settled rule.
Between sons born of wives equal in caste and without any other distinction no seniority in right of the mother exists; seniority is declared to be according to birth. And with respect to the Subrahmanya texts also it is recorded that the invocation of Indra shall be made by the first-born, of twins likewise, conceived at one time in the wombs of their mothers the seniority is declared to depend on actual birth. He who has no son may make his daughter in the following manner an appointed daughter putrika, saying to her husband'The male child, born of her, shall perform my funeral rites.
According to this rule Daksha, himself, lord of created beings, formerly made all his female offspring appointed daughters in order to multiply his race. He gave ten to Dharma, thirteen to Kasyapa, twenty-seven to King Soma, honouring them with an affectionate heart. A son is even as oneself, such a daughter is equal to a son; how can another heir take the estate, while such an appointed daughter who is even oneself, lives?
But whatever may be the separate property of the mother, that is the share of the unmarried daughter alone; and the son of an appointed daughter shall take the whole estate of his maternal grandfather who leaves no son.
The son of an appointed daughter, indeed, shall also take the estate of his own father, who leaves no other son; he shall then present two funeral cakes to his own father and to his maternal grandfather. Between a son's son and the son of an appointed daughter there is no difference, neither with respect to worldly matters nor to sacred duties; for their father and mother both sprang from the body of the same man.
But if, after a daughter has been appointed, a son be born to her fatherthe division of the inheritance must in that case be equal; for there is no right of primogeniture for a woman. But if an appointed daughter by accident dies without leaving a son, the husband of the appointed daughter may, without hesitation, take that estate.
Through that son whom a daughtereither not appointed or appointed, may bear to a husband of equal castehis maternal grandfather has a son's son; he shall present the funeral cake and take the estate.
Through a son he conquers the worlds, through a son's son he obtains immortality, but through his son's grandson he gains the world of the sun. Because a son delivers trayate his father from the hell called Put, he was therefore called put-tra a deliverer from Put by the Self-existent Svayambhu himself.
Between a son's son and the son of a daughter there exists in this world no difference; for even the son of a daughter saves him who has no sons in the next world, like the son's son. Let the son of an appointed daughter first present a funeral cake to his mother, the second to her father, the funeral to his father's father. Of the man who has an adopted Datrima son possessing all good qualities, that same son shall take the inheritance, though brought from another family.
An adopted son shall never take the family name and the estate of his natural father; the funeral cake follows the family name and the estate, the funeral offerings of him who gives his son in adoption cease as far as that son is concerned.
The son of a wife, not appointed to have issue by anotherand he whom an appointed female, already the mother of a son, bears to her brother-in-law, are both unworthy of a share, one being the son of an adulterer and the other produced through mere lust. Even the male child of a female duly appointed, not begotten according to the rule given aboveis unworthy of the paternal estate; for he was procreated by an outcast.
A son legally begotten on such an appointed female shall inherit like a legitimate son of the body; for that seed and the produce belong, according to the law, to the owner of the soil. He who takes care of his deceased brother's estate and of his widow, shall, after raising up a son for his brother, give that property even to that son. If a woman duly appointed bears a son to her brother-in-law or to another Sapindathat son, if he is begotten through desire, they declare to be incapable of inheriting and to be produced in vain.
The rules given above must be understood to apply to a distribution among sons of women of the same caste ; hear now the law concerning those begotten by one man on many wives of different castes. If there be four wives of a Brahmana in the direct order of the castes, the rule for the division of the estate among the sons born of them is as follows: The slave who tills the fieldthe bull kept for impregnating cows, the vehicle, the ornaments, and the house shall be given as an additional portion to the Brahmana sonand one most excellent share.
Let the son of the Brahmana wife take three shares of the remainder of the estate, the son of the Kshatriya two, the son of the Vaisya a share and a half, and the son of the Sudra may take one share. Or let him who knows the law make ten shares of the whole estate, and justly distribute them according to the following rule: The Brahmana son shall take four shares, son of the Kshatriya wife three, the son of the Vaisya shall have two parts, the son of the Sudra may take one share.
Whether a Brahmana have sons or have no sons by wives of the twice-born castesthe heir must, according to the law, give to the son of a Sudra wife no more than a tenth part of his estate. The son of a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaisya by a Sudra wife receives no share of the inheritance; whatever his father may give to him, that shall be his property. All the sons of twice-born men, born of wives of the same caste, shall equally divide the estate, after the others have given to the eldest an additional share.
For a Sudra is ordained a wife of his own caste only and no other; those born of her shall have equal shares, even if there be a hundred sons. Among the twelve sons of men whom Manu, sprung from the Self-existent Svayambhuenumerates, six are kinsmen and heirs, and six not heirs, but kinsmen. The legitimate son of the body, the son begotten on a wife, the son adopted, the son made, the son secretly born, and the son cast off, are the six heirs and kinsmen.
The son of an unmarried damsel, the son received with the wife, the son bought, the son begotten on a re-married woman, the son self-given, and the son of a Sudra female, are the six who are not heirs, but kinsmen. Whatever result a man obtains who tries to cross a sheet of water in an unsafe boat, even that result obtains he who tries to pass the gloom of the next world with the help of bad substitutes for a real son.
If the two heirs of one man be a legitimate son of his body and a son begotten on his wife, each of the two sonsto the exclusion of the other, shall take the estate of his natural father. The legitimate son of the body alone shall be the owner of the paternal estate; but, in order to avoid harshness, let him allow a maintenance to the rest.
But when the legitimate son of the body divides the paternal estate, he shall give one-sixth or one-fifth part of his father's property to the son begotten on the wife.
The legitimate son and the son of the wife thus share the father's estate; but the other tell become members of the family, and inherit according to their order each later named on failure of those named earlier.
Him whom a man begets on his own wedded wife, let him know to be a legitimate son of the body Aurasathe first in rank. He who was begotten according to the peculiar law of the Niyoga on the appointed wife of a dead man, of a eunuch, or of one diseased, is called a son begotten on a wife Kshetraga.
That boy equal by caste whom his mother or his father affectionately give, confirming the gift with a libation of water, in times of distress to a man as his son, must be considered as an adopted son Datrima. But he is considered a son made Kritrima whom a man makes his son, he being equal by casteacquainted with the distinctions between right and wrong, and endowed with filial virtues.
If a child be born in a man's house and his father be not known, he is a son born secretly in the house Gudhotpannaand shall belong to him of whose wife he was born.
He whom a man receives as his son, after he has been deserted by his parents or by either of them, is called a son cast off Apaviddha. A son whom a damsel secretly bears in the house of her father, one shall name the son of an unmarried damsel Kanina, and declare such offspring of an unmarried girl to belong to him who weds her afterwards. If one marries, either knowingly or unknowingly, a pregnant bridethe child in her womb belongs to him who weds her, and is called a son received with the bride Sahodha.
If a man buys a boywhether equal or unequal in good qualitiesfrom his father and mother for the sake of having a son, that child is called a son bought Kritaka. If a woman abandoned by her husband, or a widow, of her own accord contracts a second marriage and bears a sonhe is called the son of a re-married woman Paunarbhava. If she be still a virgin, or one who returned to her first husband after leaving him, she is worthy to again perform with her second or first deserted husband the nuptial ceremony.
He who, having lost his parents or being abandoned by them without just cause, gives himself to a manis called a son self-given Svayamdatta. The son whom a Brahmana begets through lust on a Sudra female is, though alive parayana corpse savaand hence called a Parasava a living corpse. A son who is begotten by a Sudra on a female slave, or on the female slave of his slave, may, if permitted by his fathertake a share of the inheritance ; thus the law is settled.
These eleven, the son begotten on the wife and the rest as enumerated abovethe wise call substitutes for a son, taken in order to prevent a failure of the funeral ceremonies. Those sons, who have been mentioned in connection with the legitimate son of the bodybeing begotten by strangers, belong in reality to him from whose seed they sprang, but not to the other man who took them.
If among brothers, sprung from one fatherone have a son, Manu has declared them all to have male offspring through that son. If among all the wives of one husband one have a son, Manu declares them all to be mothers of male children through that son. On failure of each better soneach next inferior one is worthy of the inheritance; but if there be many of equal rankthey shall all share the estate. Not brothers, nor fathers, but sons take the paternal estate; but the father shall take the inheritance of a son who leaves no male issue, and his brothers.
To three ancestors water must be offered, to three the funeral cake is given, the fourth descendant is the giver of these oblationsthe fifth has no connection with them. Always to that relative within three degrees who is nearest to the deceased Sapinda the estate shall belong; afterwards a Sakulya shall be the heir, then the spiritual teacher or the pupil.
But on failure of all heirs Brahmanas shall share the estate, who are versed the in the three Vedas, pure and self-controlled; thus the law is not violated. The property of a Brahmana must never be taken by the king, that is a settled rule; but the property of men of other castes the king may take on failure of all heirs.
If the widow of a man who died without leaving issue, raises up to him a son by a member of the family Sagotrashe shall deliver to that son the whole property which belonged to the deceased. But if two sonsbegotten by two different mencontend for the property in the hands of their mother, each shall take, to the exclusion of the other, what belonged to his father.
But when the mother has died, all the uterine brothers and the uterine sisters shall equally divide the mother's estate. Even to the daughters of those daughters something should be given, as is seemly, out of the estate of their maternal grandmother, on the score of affection. What was given before the nuptial fire, what was given on the bridal procession, what was given in token of love, and what was received from her brother, mother, or father, that is called the sixfold property of a woman.
Such propertyas well as a gift subsequent and what was given to her by her affectionate husband, shall go to her offspring, even if she dies in the lifetime of her husband. It is ordained that the property of a woman married according to the Brahma, the Daiva, the Arsha, the Gandharva, or the Pragapatya rite shall belong to her husband alone, if she dies without issue. But it is prescribed that the property which may have been given to a wife on an Asura marriage or one of the other blamable marriages, shall go to her mother and to her father, if she dies without issue.
Whatever property may have been given by her father to a wife who has co-wives of different castesthat the daughter of the Brahmani wife shall take, or that daughter's issue.
Women should never make a hoard from the property of their families which is common to many, nor from their own husbands' particular property without permission. The ornaments which may have been worn by women during their husbands' lifetime, his heirs shall not divide; those who divide them become outcasts. Eunuchs and outcasts, persons born blind or deaf, the insane, idiots and the dumb, as well as those deficient in any organ of action or sensationreceive no share. But it is just that a man who knows the law should give even to all of them food and raiment without stint, according to his ability; he who gives it not will become all outcast.
If the eunuch and the rest should somehow or other desire to take wives, the offspring of such among them as have children is worthy of a share.
Whatever property the eldest son acquires by his own exertion after the father's death, a share of that shall belong to his younger brothersprovided they have made a due progress in learning.
But if all of them, being unlearned, acquire property by their labour, the division of that shall be equal, as it is not property acquired by the father; that is a settled rule. Property acquired by learning belongs solely to him to whom it was givenlikewise the gift of a friend, a present received on marriage or with the honey-mixture. But if one of the brothers, being able to maintain himself by his own occupation, does not desire a share of the family property, he may be made separate by the others receiving a trifle out of his share to live upon.
What one brother may acquire by his labour without using the patrimony, that acquisition, made solely by his own effort, he shall not share unless by his own will with his brothers. But if a father recovers lost ancestral property, he shall not divide it, unless by his own will, with his sons, for it is self-acquired property.
If brothers, once divided and living again together as coparcenersmake a second partition, the division shall in that case be equal; in such a case there is no right of primogeniture.
If the eldest or the youngest brother is deprived of his share, or if either of them dies, his share is not lost to his immediate heirs. His uterine brothers, having assembled together, shall equally divide it, and those brothers who were reunited with him and the uterine sisters.
An eldest brother who through avarice may defraud the younger ones, shall no longer hold the position of the eldest, shall not receive an eldest son's additional share, and shall be punished by the king. All brothers who habitually commit forbidden acts, are unworthy of a share of the property, and the eldest shall not make anything his separate property without giving an equivalent to his younger brothers. If undivided brethren, living with their father, together make an exertion for gainthe father shall on no account give to them unequal shares on a division of the estate.
But a son, born after partition, shall alone take the property of his father, or if any of the other sons be reunited with the fatherhe shall share with them. A mother shall obtain the inheritance of a son who dies without leaving issue, and, if the mother be dead, the paternal grandmother shall take the estate.
And if, after all the debts and assets have been duly distributed according to the rule, any property be afterwards discovered, one must divide it equally. A dress, a vehicle, ornaments, cooked food, water, and female slavesproperty destined for pious uses or sacrifices, and a pasture-ground, they declare to be indivisible. The division of the property and the rules for allotting shares to the several sons, those begotten on a wife and the rest, in due order, have been thus declared to you; hear now the laws concerning gambling.
Gambling and betting let the king exclude from his realm; those two vices cause the destruction of the kingdoms of princes. Gambling and betting amount to open theft; the king shall always exert himself in suppressing both of them.
When inanimate things are used for staking money on themthat is called among men gambling dyutawhen animate beings are used for the same purposeone must know that to be betting samahvaya. Let the king corporally punish all those persons who either gamble and bet or afford an opportunity for itlikewise Sudras who assume the distinctive marks of twice-born men.
Gamblers, dancers and singers, cruel men, men belonging to an heretical sect, those following forbidden occupations, and sellers of spirituous liquor, let him instantly banish from his town. If such persons who are secret thieves, dwell in the realm of a king, they constantly harass his good subjects by their forbidden practices. In a former Kalpa this vice of gambling has been seen to cause great enmity; a wise man, therefore, should not practise it even for amusement.
On every man who addicts himself to that vice either secretly or openly, the king may inflict punishment according to his discretion.
But a Kshatriya, a Vaisya, and a Sudra who are unable to pay a fine, shall discharge the debt by labour; a Brahmana shall pay it by installments.
On women, infants, men of disordered mind, the poor and the sick, the king shall inflict punishment with a whip, a cane, or a rope and the like. But those appointed to administer public affairs, who, baked by the fire of wealth, mar the business of suitors, the king shall deprive of their property.
Forgers of royal edicts, those who corrupt his ministers, those who slay women, infants, or Brahmanas, and those who serve his enemies, the king shall put to death. Whenever any legal transaction has been completed or a punishment been inflicted according to the law, he shall sanction it and not annul it.
Whatever matter his ministers or the judge may settle improperly, that the king himself shall re- settle and fine them one thousand panas. The slayer of a Brahmana, A twice-born man who drinks the spirituous liquor called Sura, he who steals the gold of a Brahmanaand he who violates a Guru's bed, must each and all be considered as men who committed mortal sins mahapataka.
On those four even, if they do not perform a penance, let him inflict corporal punishment and fines in accordance with the law. For violating a Guru's bed, the mark of a female part shall be impressed on the forehead with a hot iron ; for drinking the spirituous liquor called Sura, the sign of a tavern; for stealing the gold of a Brahmanaa dog's foot; for murdering a Brahmana, a headless corpse.
Excluded from all fellowship at meals, excluded from all sacrifices, excluded from instruction and from matrimonial alliances, abject and excluded from all religious duties, let them wander over this earth. Such persons who have been branded with indelible marks must be cast off by their paternal and maternal relations, and receive neither compassion nor a salutation; that is the teaching of Manu.
Duties Of Husband And Wife According To Atharva veda
But men of all castes who perform the prescribed penances, must not be branded on the forehead by the king, but shall be made to pay the highest amercement. For such offences the middlemost amercement shall be inflicted on a Brahmana, or he may be banished from the realm, keeping his money and his chattels. But men of other casteswho have unintentionally committed such crimes, ought to be deprived of their whole property; if they committed them intentionally, they shall be banished.
A virtuous king must not take for himself the property of a man guilty of mortal sin; but if he takes it out of greed, he is tainted by that guilt of the offender. Having thrown such a fine into the water, let him offer it to Varuna, or let him bestow it on a learned and virtuous Brahmana. Varuna is the lord of punishment, for he holds the sceptre even over kings; a Brahmana who has learnt the whole Veda is the lord of the whole world.
In that countrywhere the king avoids taking the property of mortal sinners, men are born in due time and are long-lived, And the crops of the husbandmen spring up, each as it was sown, and the children die not, and no misshaped offspring is born. But the king shall inflict on a base-born Sudrawho intentionally gives pain to Brahmanas, various kinds of corporal punishment which cause terror. When a king punishes an innocent manhis guilt is considered as great as when he sets free a guilty man; but he acquires merit when he punishes justly.
Thus the manner of deciding suits falling under the eighteen titles, between two litigant parties, has been declared at length. A king who thus duly fulfils his duties in accordance with justice, may seek to gain countries which he has not yet gained, and shall duly protect them when he has gained them. Having duly settled his country, and having built forts in accordance with the Institutes, he shall use his utmost exertions to remove those men who are nocuous like thorns.
By protecting those who live as becomes Aryans and by removing the thorns, kings, solely intent on guarding their subjects, reach heaven. The realm of that king who takes his share in kind, though he does not punish thieves, will be disturbed and he will lose heaven. But if his kingdom be secure, protected by the strength of his arm, it will constantly flourish like a well - watered tree.
Let the king who sees everything through his spies, discover the two sorts of thieves who deprive others of their property, both those who show themselves openly and those who lie concealed. Among them, the open rogues are those who subsist by cheating in the sale of various marketable commodities, but the concealed rogues are burglars, robbers in forests, and so forth. Those who take bribes, cheats and rogues, gamblers, those who live by teaching the performance of auspicious ceremonies, sanctimonious hypocrites, and fortune-tellers, Officials of high rank and physicians who act improperly, men living by showing their proficiency in arts, and clever harlots, These and the like who show themselves openly, as well as others who walk in disguise such as non-Aryans who wear the marks of Aryans, he should know to be thorns in the side of his people.
Having detected them by means of trustworthy persons, who, disguising themselves, pretend to follow the same occupations and by means of spies, wearing various disguises, he must cause them to be instigated to commit offencesand bring them into his power.
Then having caused the crimes, which they committed by their several actions, to be proclaimed in accordance with the facts, the king shall duly punish them according to their strength and their crimes.
For the wickedness of evil-minded thieves, who secretly prowl over this earth, cannot be restrained except by punishment. Assembly-houses, houses where water is distributed or cakes are sold, brothels, taverns and victualler's shops, cross-roads, well-known trees, festive assemblies, and play-houses and concert-rooms, Old gardens, forests, the shops of artisans, empty dwellings, natural and artificial groves, These and the like places the king shall cause to be guarded by companies of soldiers, both stationary and patrolling, and by spies, in order to keep away thieves.
By the means of clever reformed thieves, who associate with such roguesfollow them and know their various machinations, he must detect and destroy them. Under the pretext of offering them various dainties, of introducing them to Brahmanas, and on the pretence of showing them feats of strength, the spies must make them meet the officers of justice.
Those among them who do not come, and those who suspect the old thieves employed by the kingthe king shall attack by force and slay together with their friends, blood relations, and connexions. A just king shall not cause a thief to be put to death, unless taken with the stolen goods in his possession ; him who is taken with the stolen goods and the implements of burglaryhe may, without hesitation, cause to be slain.
All those also who in villages give food to thieves or grant them room for concealing their implementshe shall cause to be put to death. Those who are appointed to guard provinces and his vassals who have been ordered to helphe shall speedily punish like thieves, if they remain inactive in attacks by robbers.
Hindu Marriages Purpose and Significance
Moreover if a manwho subsists by the fulfilment of the law, departs from the established rule of the law, the king shall severely punish him by a fine, because he violated his duty. Those who do not give assistance according to their ability when a village is being plundered, a dyke is being destroyed, or a highway robbery committed, shall be banished with their goods and chattels. On those who rob the king's treasury and those who persevere in opposing his commandshe shall inflict various kinds of capital punishment, likewise on those who conspire with his enemies.
But the king shall cut off the hands of those robbers who, breaking into houses, commit thefts at night, and cause them to be impaled on a pointed stake. On the first conviction, let him cause two fingers of a cut-purse to be amputated; on the second, one hand and one foot; on the third, he shall suffer death.
Neither men nor women can throw away their marital relationships on some flimsy or selfish or whimsical grounds. Remarriage is permitted only under exceptional circumstances. Polygamy was a normal practice among Hindus just a few centuries ago. Presently, in India, the Hindu Marriage Act not only prohibits it but also makes it a punishable offence. In the earthly plane, a marriage symbolically represents the same relationship that exists at the universal level between the Purusha, the Highest Supreme Self or Father God and Prakriti, the Universal Divine Mother or Mother Goddess, who as the dynamic energy of God is responsible for manifesting the Creation under the Will of God.
Together they participate in the act of creation and bring forth all the beings as their progeny. In a marriage earthly beings perform the same role, except in a limited manner. According to the Vedic tradition marriage is the means by which a man perpetuates himself through his progeny. A father extends himself into his future life and also into the next world through his children. In this process he is helped by his wife who bears him children through the sacred union in which there is a transfer of sexual energy rethas.
In traditional Hinduism, marriage is the best means for the continuation of family and the Hindu tradition, by fulfilling which the two partners in the marriage cocreate their future and become qualified for their salvation. The roles of a husband and wife in a marriage are expected to be complimentary, because without the help from the other neither of them can fulfill the duties and obligations of the married life.
The Hindu law books try their best to delineate the roles and responsibilities of each partner in a marriage so as to avoid any confusion. The couple have to follow their family rules and make sure that they do not contribute to the social disorder. In a traditional Hindu family, married couples have to perform many traditional duties, some of which have to be performed by them alone and some in association with the other.
Among others, the following are some of their common duties and obligations. Participate in the creation of progeny Work for the welfare of the family members. Respect the Hindu dharma and family traditions by performing the obligatory duties, various samskaras and rituals.
Perform devotional services, charitable works and other morally and spiritual uplifting activities. Serve the gods, earthly beings, the ancestors and the dependent parents and relationships.
Look after each other through thick and thin. Assist each other in their spiritual progress and work for each other's salvation. Hindu scriptures do show a clear bias towards men and take the superiority of men in marital relationships for granted.
They declare that a woman ought to be respected, protected and kept happy and that the happiness of women in the household is vital for the prosperity, peace and happiness of a family. They also recognize the importance of women in the affairs of their families and in molding the character and integrity of their children.
However, at the same time they emphasize the need to keep women under constant vigilance by their men, since, according to them, women cannot be completely trusted or left to themselves.
They also do not consider gender equality as an important consideration in marriage or in society, although they do emphasize that each partner in a marriage has a unique role to perform, which cannot be discharged by the other. Man is recognized as the primary upholder of the dharma, the main recipient of all ritual honors, where as his wife participates in them as his partner and associate saha dharma charini to complement his efforts.
He is incomplete without her and so does she. But when it comes to the comparison, he clearly stands above her. When he leaves the world, she loses every thing, her wealth, her identity, her comforts and her status. Thus clearly and unequivocally the Hindu scriptures relegate women to a subordinate position in relationship with men. Marriage has another dimension in Hindu religion, which is unique by itself.
Marriage is not viewed as a purely human affair, but as a sacred covenant between a man and a woman in which gods participate as witnesses as well as donors of the bride.