Dominican Republic: Background and U.S. Relations - caztuning.info
Dominican Republic - US Relations. The U.S. has a strong interest in a democratic, stable, and economically healthy Dominican Republic. U.S. Government Leaders. President of the United States · Vice President of the United States · U.S. Secretary of State. U.S. & the Dominican Republic. Policy &. The Dominican Republic, a country of roughly million people that shares the Caribbean island of Hispaniola with Haiti, is a close U.S.
The Embassy estimates thatU. An important element of the relationship between the two countries is the fact that more than 1 million individuals of Dominican origin reside in the United States, most of them in the metropolitan Northeast and some in Florida.
The Dominican government has been supportive of many U. The two governments cooperate in the fight against the traffic in illegal substances. The Dominican Republic has worked closely with U. Bilateral trade is important to both countries. The Dominican Republic is the 47th-largest commercial partner of the United States. Embassy works closely with U. At the same time, the Embassy is working with the Dominican government to resolve ongoing commercial and investment disputes.
The Embassy counsels U. This is a challenging business environment for U. Reid resigned under pressure from a mixed military group aligned with Bosch's Dominican Revolutionary Party. Fortas long had an interest in Latin America and maintained close contacts with key Hispanics in Puerto Rico.
Fearful that Communist elements were infiltrating the new government and taking advantage of the "constitutionalist" rebels who supported Bosch, Johnson and his advisers worked quickly to prevent a "second Cuba. Three days after the ouster of Reid Cabral, the Johnson administration concluded that the conservative loyalist troops were ill-equipped to fight successfully against the leftist constitutionalists who were swiftly gaining ground.
The conflict endangered American citizens residing in Santo Domingo. On April 28,Bennett requested the immediate landing of U. Marines in the capital city. Believing that the "judgment of those on the spot" ought to be followed, Mann, McGeorge Bundy and the President agreed to Bennett's request.
When Johnson briefed congressional leaders on the decision to intervene militarily, he was careful not to play up the threat of Communist expansion and emphasized instead humanitarian objectives.
Privately, however, Johnson was convinced unlike some of his advisers of an impending Communist takeover and energetically sought to prevent this "disaster" from happening. Like the other Spanish Caribbean colonies, Santo Domingo, as it was called then, was peopled sparsely by Spanish, Spanish creoles people of Spanish descent born in the Americasand relatively small numbers of African and African-descended slaves.
Isolated from a distant Spanish monarch, underpopulated, and with little investment from the outside, Santo Domingo languished in comparison to her French and British West Indian neighbors. Barbados in the seventeenth century and Saint Dominque now called Haiti in the eighteenth century became centers of sugar production and generated great wealth for the British and French planters who worked those lands.
It was not until the nineteenth century that Santo Domingo became a central presence in the Western Hemisphere. Inthe newly founded nation of Haiti, which had won its independence from France at the turn of the century and become the first black sovereign nation in the Americas, invaded and occupied the Spanish half of Hispaniola. For the remainder of the century, Santo Domingo passed into and out of sovereignty, winning independence from Haiti in and then voluntarily resubmitting to Spanish colonial rule in After regaining independence after several years of colonial rule, the Dominican government discussed the possibilities of annexation with U.
At the same time that the government was discussing new political directions, the economy began to move in new directions too. After centuries of slow progress, the Dominican economy experienced new growth: Cuban immigrants, along with others from North America and Europe, brought new capital into the country.
They invested heavily in the sugar industry, which soon became the most important productive industry in the nation.
Dominican Republic - US Relations
The Dominican Republic's claims to sovereignty, however, did not go unchallenged in the twentieth century. Twice, the United States invaded and occupied the Caribbean island, first from toand again in The second invasion played a more significant role in launching the most recent migration of Dominicans to the United States.
The assassination of military ruler Rafael Trujillo in marked the start of a period of political uncertainty in the Dominican Republic that was ended when U. That civil war and subsequent intervention by the United States on the side of the conservative military led to an outflux of Bosch supporters and other like-minded political activists from the Dominican Republic in the s Luis E.
Guarnizo, " Los Dominicanyorks: Those emigrants, most of whom came to the United States, were the first of many Dominicans who have come in ever-increasing numbers in the past several decades. The number of Dominicans legally entering the United States between and was far greater than the number of Cubans: New Interpretive Essays, p.
Despite these numbers, however, Dominican immigrants have been relatively unstudied. Systematic research on the Dominican population in the United States is scarce, and newspaper and magazine coverage is sparse compared to the coverage received by other Caribbean immigrant groups e. Those studies that do exist rely on data from the census or from studies conducted in the early or mids. Thus, upto-date, accurate, and complete information on Dominicans in the United States is difficult to find.
As the raw data from the census is analyzed and studied, more work on this important immigrant group will result.
Most Dominicans in the United States arrived after Of theDominican-born persons resident in the United States at the time of the census, only 6. More than a third came during the decade of political instability in the Dominican Republic—the s—and the remaining 56 percent arrived in the s.
During the s, however, Dominican immigration soared. In those ten years, more thanDominicans were legally admitted to the United States.
The number of new immigrants in that ten-year period was 50 percent greater than the entire Dominican-born population of the United States at the start of the decade. Census reported that of thepersons of Dominican descent in the United States, the vast majority were Dominican-born. Thus the Dominican American community is primarily an immigrant community and, indeed, a community of recent immigrants. According to the census, most Dominicans have settled in the Northeast Though the greatest number reside in New York and New Jersey nearly, there are significant Dominican communities in Massachusetts 29, and Florida 36, These communities are predominantly urban: They were also considered the biggest and fastest growing immigrant population in the city.
No reliable figures on the number of undocumented immigrants in this country exist; however, many who have studied Dominican immigration believe it to be quite high. One scholar writing in suggested that there were at that time someundocumented Dominicans in the United States John A. Garcia, "Caribbean Migration to the Mainland: Although that number seems high given the statistics collected by the Census Bureau init does suggest the significance of undocumented migrants in the Dominican community in the United States.
A number of Dominican migrants also return to the Dominican Republic either to visit or to resettle permanently. Again, no recent or reliable statistics show exactly how many Dominicans have returned to the Caribbean or for how long.
Other indicators, however, suggest that the return movement is significant. For example, the Tourism Secretariat in the Dominican Republic reported in that 20 percent of all visitors to the island from abroad were Dominicans who had previously emigrated.
Moreover, businesses in the Caribbean nation that serve the returned migrant community, and schools, apartment buildings, and discos have been opened especially for returned migrants. Many retornadosor returned migrants, as well as those living overseas have invested heavily in their country of origin, establishing real estate brokerages and grocery stores, among other businesses, on the island.
Even those who do not start businesses contribute vitally to the economic life of the Dominican Republic. Remittances, monies sent back to family members still resident on the island, bring more foreign currency into the Dominican economy than any industry except tourism. It is clear from these examples that Dominicans in the United States maintain a strong interest in their country of origin.
The causes of the Dominican immigration are various and have changed over time. As suggested above, the first significant immigration from the Dominican Republic to the United States was in large part the product of political and social instability at home.
Those who opposed or had reason to fear the new regime in and those who were fleeing violence throughout the s came to the United States in notable numbers. As time went on, however, and the political situation stabilized, Dominicans continued to emigrate, because of limited employment opportunities and poor economic conditions.
Studies have shown that those who emigrate are better educated than those they left on the island and were more likely to have been employed when they left the Dominican Republic. These urban, often professional migrants left the Caribbean to find better opportunities elsewhere Sherri Grasmuck, "Immigration, Ethnic Stratification, and Native Working Class Discipline: Puerto Rico is also a principal destination of Dominicans leaving the Dominican Republic.
Many others use Puerto Rico as a stepping stone to the mainland United States. Dominicans maintain a significant presence in Puerto Rico and should be considered a small but important stream in the movement of Dominicans to the United States.
Because of extended periods of U. Baseball is the most popular sport in the country.
And American values are admired and emulated by many Dominicans. Thus, Dominicans coming to the United States already have more than a passing familiarity with the country to which they are immigrating. Moreover, those migrants who return home are disparaged for the degree to which they have adopted American cultural forms. Nonetheless, the available evidence suggests that Dominican migrants do not have a simple and wholly positive relationship with Americans and American culture.
Most Dominicans work in nonunionized workplaces for wages that most "established" Americans would refuse. Many Dominicans have encountered race prejudice in the United States also. The mixed Afro-Hispanic heritage of many Dominicans has led them to be categorized as black by white Americans; they have encountered the same racial prejudice that African Americans have experienced for centuries.