A primary care approach to sodium and potassium imbalance - best tests September
The relationships between the serum cations sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium and blood pressure were investigated in a population-based sample . Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for baseline serum potassium and sodium in relation to the risk of new-onset hypertension were. Hypertension. Dec;12(6) Relationship of serum sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus with blood pressure. Belgian Interuniversity.
A primary care approach to sodium and potassium imbalance
This study aimed to evaluate the associations between serum potassium and sodium levels and risk of incident hypertension during a 5-year follow-up period in a community-based population of Chinese adults without diagnosed hypertension. The design and selection criteria of the CMCS have been described previously. A total of participants were thus finally included in the study.
The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University and all participants provided written informed consent. Data were recorded using a standardized questionnaire including age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity and medical history.
Current smoking was defined as at least one cigarette per day in the past year. Alcohol consumption was defined as drinking more than three times a week.
Physical activity was categorized as no activity, occasional activity exercise sessions a week lasting on average 30 min per session and regular activity exercise more than 3 sessions a week lasting on average 30 min per session. Physical examinations included measurements of height, weight and blood pressure.
The mean value of three consecutive readings an interval of 30 s was used both at the baseline and the follow-up surveys. Normal blood pressure was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure of — mmHg and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 80—84 mmHg.
Pre-hypertension was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure of — mmHg and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 85—89 mmHg. The new-onset hypertension was defined as normotensive at baseline examination and progressed to hypertension in the follow-up survey.
- Why potassium helps
- Potassium and sodium out of balance
Body mass index BMI was calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. The eGFR was calculated according to the modification of diet in renal disease. Overnight fasting venous blood samples were collected for the measurements of serum glucose, blood lipid, albumin, creatinine, insulin and electrolyte concentrations. Serum potassium and sodium levels were measured by the ion-selective electrode method. High-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were measured by homogeneous assay.
Fasting insulin was measured using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay and albumin level was measured by the bromocresol green method. Statistical analysis With the actual sample size ofhypertension incidence of For comparison, serum potassium level was classified into five groups according to 0.
The incidence of hypertension was calculated according to baseline serum potassium and sodium levels, classified as above. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between baseline serum potassium and sodium levels and risk of incident hypertension.
The multivariate model was adjusted for factors that may affect blood pressure or serum potassium and sodium including age, sex, BMI, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein HDL-Clow-density lipoprotein LDL-Cinsulin, albumin, eGFR, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension, and levels of serum calcium and magnesium ions.
To be sure, there is more to bone health than sodium and potassium.
Heredity, lack of exercise, hormone levels low testosterone in men, low estrogen in womenand a dearth of vitamin D and vitamin K can also weaken bones. But it's good to know that a positive change made for your heart is doing good things elsewhere in the body.
Food companies continue to blur the boundary between food and medicine. An early entry, a margarine-like spread called Benecol, contains sterol esters derived from vegetable oil or wood pulp that help lower cholesterol.
One of the latest entries is Promise Supershots for blood pressure. Each three-ounce bottle delivers milligrams mg of potassium, with just a hint of sodium 20 mg and a few calories According to its maker, Unilever, this fruit-based drink is a good source of potassium for controlling blood pressure.
Ounce for ounce, it costs more than a medium okay, Grande latte at Starbucks which, by the way, has more potassium than a Supershot.
Potassium and sodium out of balance - Harvard Health
And you can get more potassium from a banana or some raisins, which also give you fiber and a host of other nutrients. For most people, more potassium and less sodium is good for health. If you aren't inclined to eat fruit or vegetables, then a daily Supershot might help. But you'll get more from eating potassium-rich foods, for less out of your pocket.
A diet for the ages Our Stone Age ancestors consumed about 16 times more potassium than sodium. Modern tribes of hunter-gatherers have similarly high ratios.