Defining Culture and Its Role in Literature: Stephan Greenblatt’s “Culture” - GretaCarroll
social and cultural as well as biological and geographical. At one time or another literature has been thought to reflect economics, family relationships, cli-. Apr 22, He points out that culture has not always been part of literary criticism and . Now, after explaining constraints relation to culture and literature. Culture is a wider concept than literature, so in this context it will be considered in terms of its relationship with literature, i.e. as a combination of literature AND.
It enhances both writing and reading abilities, but it also push the way for certain complex discourse. Because the larger your vocabulary range is, the more deep discussions and important topics you face and both inside and outside of the classroom.
Furthermore, in their speech, people tend to use a limited range of vocabulary, so the best way to become exposed to new words is to read more and more. Thus, reading and tackling literature is considered as important due to its necessity to construct and enhance vocabulary.
Because any novel automatically contains diversity of words that students almost never seen or heard before, and through this they will acquire them and grasp their meanings and add them to their dictionary.
Enhancing Writing Skills Writing skills is one of the toughest skills in the language because it requires more than linking words and sentences together, it needs a high level of grammar and vocabulary and a professional mind to master the rules and apply them.
However, the best way to become a good writer is through reading. When you read you are being deep inside the language.
Students who tend to read seem to have more knowledge of how language works, and consequently they will have an advantage when they start to write a piece of writing. As can be seen, literature serves as valuable teachers where it teach students how to use a previous written language to make a new own one in order to improve their writing skills and communicate with the world.
Growing Critical Thinking Education make the students a critical and a communicative part due to its means and tools to make them valuable elements in the society, and one of these tools is the ability to think critically through analyzing and criticizing everything around them. Literature as a part of education serves this goal as well as many novels encourage critical thinking and require an analytical way of thinking in order to understand and grasp the hidden meaning within them, that is why teachers tend to select such novels to be taught in the classroom in order to grow the critical thinking of their students and make them a critical minds in the society because literature promote this kind of activity where it teaches the students how to read a passage and then it makes him wonder how and why it was written like that and in this way.
Building Reading Skills Students must practice reading regularly to build and enhance their reading skills, because reading literature provides another path for this simple practice. Particularly during early-reading instruction, teachers who read literature in their class often aim to help students hone these all-important skills.
Create Connections Reading literature is not just learning about the literary works themselves, but also about learning how the world works and runs. In a word, through the discovering of literature, students can immerse themselves in the world more than any they have seen before, because literature provides multiplicity of benefits for them, through conveying cultural context, building their grammatical rules, enhancing their critical thinking, blending them in the world and connecting them with societies.
That is why the teaching of literature in the EFL classes is considered as a high priority and with vital necessity. L Programs Literature was at first the principle vein of info for guiding in dialect classes in the period of Grammar Translation Technique. Yet from that point forward it has been dropped down the platform. Actually with the appearance of structuralism and audio-lingual system, literature has been minimized and thusly dropped to the margin.
Collie and Slater,p. Likewise in the period of Communicative Language Teaching, literature was ignored and more consideration was given to dialogs and discussions which were more functional and unmistakable in this present reality circumstance. Maley contends that this state of mind toward literature is because of a lack of observational examination affirming the criticalness of abstract data for dialect classes.
Maley asserts that what exists as of now as observational examination on composing and tongue instructing are certain to movement research in little balances. Taking regard of every one of these disapprovals, amidst the s a few professionals and dialect researchers revived literature as a dialect learning material after a long extent of being disregarded.
This can be affirmed by seeing such a variety of distributions proclaiming the returning of literature in dialect classes Maley, Moreover, connected etymology filled the arrival of literature for dialect instructing. Publications which laid the red carpet for the arrival of literature were productive right now including: What follows is a brief outline of what we can say the benefits and merits of literature in ESL.
Authenticity Literature is inherently authentic and provides authentic input for language learning Ghosn, ; Shrestha, According to Maley literature manages non-trivial and serious things which are relevant.Aberystwyth's Literary Cartographers: Exploring the Relationships between Literature and Place.
Authenticity is viewed as very important in the literature in the ESL classes which naturally exist in the literary texts. In drama for instance, authenticity can be seen in conversations, dialogues, feelings and expressions that take place between the participants.
Motivations Literary texts provide motivation for their authenticity and the meaningful context that they offer to learners. Literature handles things that are fascinating in nature and incorporates little of any uninteresting things Maley, a. Motivation is one of the elements which guide learner to process. Motivation can be achieved if learners are exposed to what they really want and what they really find their enjoyment in.
Defining Culture and Its Role in Literature: Stephan Greenblatt’s “Culture”
Studies revealed that students find their motivation and feel enjoyed when they are exposed to literary texts for learning purposes. Cultural Awareness Literature was and still providing cultural and intercultural awareness Van, especially in the era of imperialism, industrialization and globalization. Literature deals with universal concepts such as love, hatred, death, nature, traditions, values and other elements that are common to all languages and cultures, where the difference, similarity, and even the relationship between cultures and languages can expand our understanding for life and enrich our vision to the whole world.
Learners can be given a week just to experience a novel without broad use of word reference or dictionary. A test like this shall increase their reading speed and help them improving their meaning guessing in reading any literary text. Consequently students will learn and get used of how to read a lot in a short period of time. On the other hand, poetry can be the suitable literary genre for intensive reading, because poetry requires deep and close analysis.
Thus, the students are invited to read carefully and dig for hidden meanings in each stanza of a particular poem such as allegories and metaphors in order to grasp the real meaning of that literary text.
Enhancing Language Skills Similarly with the standards of CLT19 Van,literature is rich of many unlimited genres that can help in the development of the language four skills: For writing purposes, literature provides a good floor for the practicing of writing.
For instance, us as Master students that literature is our field of study, having complete a short story or a poem is very encouraging because we can make the end of the story in our own words or even narrate it with a different point of 19 Abb: Communicative Language Teaching view according to our understanding and critical thinking, and this is a similar activity for practicing writing fluently.
Literature and culture
For speaking purposes, many events and occasions that take place in a poem, a book, or a short story can be associated with our real life because many literary texts reveal and depict social issues in their context. This helps the learners to practice warm discussions about those raw topics in their foreign language classes.
For listening purposes, students can be exposed to the audio extracts of stories and poems or novels. Even the musical elements in poetry help the learners to hear and focus on the rhythm and the intonation of native speakers that is provided within these literary genres, and this will help them to develop their listening ability and make them ready to indulge these new elements in their other skills.
For reading purposes, as it is mentioned before, novel and poetry provide vital opportunities for extensive and intensive reading, it help the students to practice their skills of scanning, skimming, and digging in texts in order to find new ideas. In general, reading in literature is a combination of reading for enjoyment and reading for getting information.
All in all, literature fills the lacks in non-literary texts. In matter of fact, it is not only helpful for language learning purposes in general, but it is useful also to accelerate language learning in content-based instruction Shang, One important implication is that a language cannot be taught without its corresponding culture. The relevance of culture to FL learning is highly put in evidence when it comes to teaching literature.
Literature can be studied for a better understanding of culture as may culture be studied for a better understanding of literature. An effective way to make foreign language literature accessible to learners is, thus, to introduce them to the culture in which this literature was conceived.
Culture features in literary texts, also named culture specific elements or expressions, have been an area of interest for many researchers. That is, culture features are specific to one culture and stands it out from another one. She also identified the following as being the culture features that can be found in literary texts: This suggests that the load of culture specific elements in literary texts unravels for foreign learners the hidden aspects of the target culture such as cultural values and connotative meanings.
These cultural aspects if well invested by teachers can open a window to better insights on the target culture. The study of culture features in literary texts promotes intercultural understanding. Because classroom discussion about culture will be grounded in specific aspects portrayed in particular literary contexts, using literary texts helps avoid culture stereotyping that can occur when discussing cross—cultural differences MacKay,p.
The particular importance of literary texts in promoting intercultural understanding lies in the possibilities of reflective analysis of the culturally informative classroom discussions.
According to Alred, Byram and Fleming having an intercultural experience through a direct encounter with native speakers is not enough to develop a culture skill. Rather there must be reflection, analysis and action p. Specified elements for discussion involving literary texts are deemed more effective via the study of literature because culture specific elements in literary texts are well organized. That way they for drawing analogies and contrasts between different cultures MacKay,P.
Hence, narrow and superficial understanding of the target culture might be safely avoided via target discussions of culture features inside EFL classrooms. Colby and Lyon argued that reflections on literary texts help learners identify with their own culture p.
It is getting learners to think about different cultures what actually pushes them to think more critically about their own culture. In general, teaching culture in literature considered as helpful to the learners where its main aim is to provide them with aspects of life of certain societies in a particular period of time, in the same vein it is beneficial for building their literary skills and will make them eager to read more literary text due to the motivation that provides for them.
Hence, its relation to literature is very important as it is mentioned before, where the teaching of literature would not be considered as complete without the cultural aspect. So, culture need to be taught in literature, and for this both teachers and learners are invited to follow certain techniques, methods and approaches to teach it fluently and effectively, each with his own style depending on the environmental structures that surround him and his learners, some ones will base on some specific materials, others will depend on their ability of making culture rightly reached by students, and some others may base on the motivations that the students find in the literary texts…etc 2.
There is a wide assortment of status relating to remote dialects, extending from less generally utilized and lesser taught dialects up to all the more customarily taught dialects, for example, French, German and Spanish which will affect the formal instructing of literature as a major aspect of a dialect learning program.
Moreover, identifying and distinguishing the different functions of literature throughout the ages application of theoretical tools for literary analysis and use of theoretical terminology for the analysis of literary text are all essential for teachers to have in order to facilitate culture understanding to learners from all ages.
That may help both learners to better receive cultural aspects and understand the cultural factors of any given literature, and help the teachers to transfer the cultural context to learners in a good work condition. All things considered, the article is named "culture" and in the event that it will be the fundamental center, the initial step is characterizing what "culture" really is.
He calls attention to that culture has not generally been a piece of abstract support and truth be told, the very "idea" of "society" is moderately new. He cites the anthropologist Edward B. Taylor as characterizing society as, "that mind boggling entire which incorporates learning, conviction, craftsmanship, ethics, law, custom, and some other abilities and propensities obtained by man as an individual from society" He clarifies that the ensemble of beliefs and practices that form a given culture function as a pervasive technology of control, a set of limits within which social behavior must be contained, a repertoire of models to which individuals must conform He clarifies that these 20 For more information on Greenblatt's article.
Visit the link http: He describes that literature has been a very powerful entity in constraining and urging people to respect cultural boundaries. This is when culture comes in. Granted, we can never make ourselves completely apart from our own position and even we cannot understand the position of someone else, but the understanding of culture helps us to understand to some extent the boundaries that existed before.
Greenblatt then provides us with a helpful arrangement of six questions which he clarifies are the beginning stage for us to consider the culture behind a work. The inquiries are the accompanying: However, Greenblatt likewise gives us a notice in the wake of giving us these starter questions are very important and critical. So on the grounds that we have to consider the above inquiries, does not mean we can disregard the content or the suggestions that are embedded in the text.
Then he added that not just because culture influences literature means that literature has no power, or that literature cannot influence culture back. He says that cultural analysis then is not by definition an extrinsic analysis, as opposed to an internal formal analysis of works of art.
Connection Between Culture and Literature | Walid Habbar - caztuning.info
At the same time, cultural analysis must be opposed on principle to the rigid distinction between that which is within a text and that which lies outside. And if an exploration of a particular culture will lead to a heightened understanding of a work of literature produced within that culture, so too a careful reading of a work of literature will lead to a heightened understanding of the culture within which it was produced.
The organization of this volume makes it appear that the analysis of culture is the servant of literary study, but in a liberal education broadly conceived it is literary study that is the servant of cultural understanding Greenblatt, Greenblatt now proceeds onward and utilizes Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queen as a segue in the middle of constraint and mobility.
He takes note of the imperatives present in it, as Spenser himself has said that the reason for his incomprehensible sentiment epic… is to form a courteous fellow or honorable individual in prudent and delicate control Yet, in the meantime as Spenser says this, his characters continually are "meandering a nonexistent scene" which signs to mobility.
Greenblatt clarifies this inconsistency in the middle of constraint and mobility with the accompanying, and he argues that if society capacities as a structure of points of confinement, it additionally works as the controller and underwriter of development.
For sure the breaking points are for all intents and purposes unimportant without development; it is just through spontaneous creation, analyze, and trade that social limits can be set up. Clearly, among distinctive societies there will be incredible differing qualities in the proportion in the middle of versatility and constraint. There is a wide variety of status pertaining to foreign languages, ranging from less widely used and lesser taught languages LWULT up to more traditionally taught languages such as French, German and Spanish which will have an impact on the formal teaching of literature as part of a language learning programme.
Teaching and learning The fields of literature and culture are particularly suited to the use of innovative pedagogy, though in most courses traditional approaches still prevail. Essays are used either as part of continuous assessment or as final subject evaluations. Project work is rare in literature subjects, but more common and rising in popularity in the assessment of culture subjects.
Longer papers on literary subjects are usually introduced during the 2nd cycle level MA. Assessment is usually carried out by the subject teacher internal assessment but a few countries include additional external examiners who in the field of literature specialise in the subject being evaluated. The provision of assessment criteria and distribution of marks are good practice and in many cases are a quality assurance requirement.
Greenblatt then provides us with a handy set of six questions which he explains are the starting point for us to consider the culture behind a work. The questions are the following: What kinds of behavior, what models of practice, does this work seem to enforce?
Why might readers at a particular time and place find this work compelling? Are there differences between my values and the values implicit in the work I am reading? Upon what social understanding does the work depend? Whose freedom of thought or movement might be constrained implicitly or explicitly by this work?
What are the larger social structures with which these particular acts of praise or blame might be connected? However, Greenblatt also gives us a warning after handing us these starter questions which I feel is extremely important. So just because we need to consider the above questions, does not mean we can ignore the text or the implications it has.
He then clarifies that just because culture influences literature, that does not mean that literature has no power, or that it cannot work the other way around. At the same time, cultural analysis must e opposed on principle to the rigid distinction between that which is within a text and that which lies outside.
And if an exploration of a particular culture will lead to a heightened understanding of a work of literature produced within that culture, so too a careful reading of a work of literature will lead to a heightened understanding of the culture within which it was produced.
Now, after explaining constraints relation to culture and literature, he gives examples of constraint in literature. He uses two characters as examples, Orlando and Audrey.