Kublai Khan - HISTORY
In modern times the Mongols are primarily Tibetan Buddhists, but in previous eras, especially In the time of Genghis Khan, his sons took Christian wives of the Keraites, and under the rule of tended to regard Nestorianism as heretical for its beliefs about the nature of Jesus. . Relations with Christian nations. The Lord abides at this Park of his, dwelling sometimes in the Marble Palace . SHANG-TU or "Upper Court," the Chinese title of Kublai's summer residence at . It would be a singular coincidence in relation to this poem were . by Marco Polo; for the highest position at the Mongol Khan's court belonged to. Polo's dealings with the Great Kublai Khan and the exotic lands he travelled [ 12] Marco Polo developed a personal relationship with the Great Khan, and Polo glorified Kublai, writing that “he is indeed the greatest lord the.
After the death of Abaqa's mother Doquz, Maria filled her role as a major Christian influence in the Ilkhanate. Sartaq Khanson of Batu Khanwho converted to Christianity during his lifetime;  Kitbuqa general of Mongol forces in the Levantwho fought in alliance with Christian vassals. Practice[ edit ] Nestorian tombstone with inscriptions in Syriacfound in Issyk Kuldated According to popular anthropologist Jack Weatherfordbecause the Mongols had a primarily nomadic culture, their practice of Christianity was different from what might have been recognized by most Western Christians.
The Mongols had no churches or monasteries, but claimed a set of beliefs that descended from the Apostle Thomaswhich relied on wandering monks. Further, their style was based more on practice than belief.
The primary interest in Christianity for many, was the story that Jesus had healed the sick and survived death, so the practice of Christianity became interwoven with the care of the sick. Jesus was considered to be a powerful shaman, and another attraction was that the name Jesus sounded like Yesu, the Mongol number "9".
It was a sacred number to the Mongols, and was also the name of Genghis Khan's father, Yesugei. They had varied readings of the Scriptures, especially feeling an affinity to the wandering Hebrew tribes. Christianity also allowed the eating of meat different from the vegetarianism of the Buddhists. And of particular interest to the hard-drinking Mongols, they enjoyed that the consuming of alcohol was a required part of church services.
Other tribes evangelized entirely or to a great extent during the 10th and 11th centuries were the Naiman tribe. An account of the conversion of the Keraite is given by the 13th century West Syrian historian, Gregory Bar Hebraeuswho documented a letter by bishop Abdisho of Merv to the Catholic John VI which announced the conversion of the Keraits to Christianity. When he had abandoned all hope, a saint appeared in a vision and said, "If you will believe in Christ, I will lead you lest you perish.
At their suggestion, he sent a message to the Metropolitan of Merv for priests and deacons to baptize him and his tribe. As a result of the mission that followed, the king and 20, of his people were baptized. Though the identity of Prester John was linked with individuals from other areas as well, such as India or Ethiopia, in some versions of the legend, Prester John was explicitly identified with the Christian Mongol Toghrul.
They left Bukhara, Samarkand, Kashgar, then came the murderous obstacle of the Gobi desert. Through the northern route they reached Turfan and Hami, then headed south-east to Dunhuang. The Great Khan, Mangu's brother, Kublai, was indeed hospitable.
He had set up his court at Beijing, which was not a Mongol encampment but an impressive city built by Kublai as his new capital after the Mongols took over China in and established Yuan dynasty Kublai asked them all about their part of the world, the Pope and the Roman church. Niccolo and Matteo, who spoke Turkic dialects perfectly, answered truthfully and clearly.
The Polo brothers were well received in the Great Khan's capital. One year later, the Great Khan sent them on their way with a letter in Turki addressed to Pope Clement IV asking the Pope to send him learned men to teach his people about Christianity and Western science.
He also asked Pope to procure oil from the lamp at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. To make sure the brothers would be given every assistance on their travels, Kublai Khan presented them with a golden tablet or paiza in Chinese, gerege in Mongolian a foot long and three inches wide and inscribed with the words Left Fig. Let him that pays him not reverence be killed. It took the Polos three full years to return home, in April Although the Polo brothers blazed a trail of their own on their first journey to the East, they were not the first Europeans to visit the Mongols on their home ground.
Before them Giovanni di Piano Carpini in and Guillaume de Rubrouck in had made the dangerously journey to Karakorum and returned safely; however the Polos traveled farther than Carpini and Rubrouck and reached China. Niccolo and Maffeo had established a trading outpost on the island of Curzola, off the coast of Dalmatia; it is not certain whether Marco Polo was born there or in Venice in The place Marco Polo grew up, Venice, was the center for commerce in the Mediterranean.
Marco had the usual education of a young gentleman of his time. He had learned much of the classical authors, understood the texts of the Bible, and knew the basic theology of the Latin Church. He had a sound knowledge of commercial French as well as Italian.
From his later history we can be sure of his interest in natural resources, in the ways of people, as well as strange and interesting plants and animals. Marco Polo was only 6 years old when his father and uncle set out eastward on their first trip to Cathay China. He was by then 15 years old when his father and his uncle returned to Venice and his mother had already passed away. He remained in Venice with his father and uncle for two more years and then three of them embarked the most couragous journey to Cathay the second time.
The Long and Difficult Journey to Cathay At the end of yearreceiving letters and valuable gifts for the Great Khan from the new Pope Tedaldo Gregory xthe Polos once more set out from Venice on their journey to the east. They took with them year-old Marco Polo and two friars.
The two friars hastily turned back after reaching a war zone, but the Polos carried on.
- Marco Polo
- Marco Polo’s Adventures: Travel, Trade, and the Mongol Empire
- Marco Polo and his travels
Avoiding to travel the same route the Polos did 10 years ago, they made a wide swing to the north, first arriving to the southern Caucasus and the kingdom of Georgia. Then they journeyed along the regions parallel to the western shores of the Caspian Sea, reaching Tabriz and made their way south to Hormuz on the Persian Gulf.
They intended to take sea route to the Chinese port. From Hormuz, however, finding the ships "wretched affairs From Homurz to Kerman, passing Herat, Balkh, they arrived Badakhshan, where Marco Polo convalesced from an illness and stayed there for a year. On the move again, they found themselves on "the highest place in the world, the Pamirs", with its name appeared in the history for the first time.
When the Polos arrived the Taklamakan desert or Taim Basinthis time they skirted around the desert on the southern route, passing through Yarkand, Khotan, Cherchen, and Lop-Nor. Marco's keen eye picked out the most notable peculiarities of each. At Yarkand, he described that the locals were extremely prone to goiter, which Marco blamed on the local drinking water.
In the rivers of Pem province were found "stones called jasper and chalcedony in plenty" - a reference to jade. At Pem, "when a woman's husband leaves her to go on a journey of more than 20 days, as soon as he has left, she takes another husband, and this she is fully entitled to do by local usage.
Marco Polo (article) | Khan Academy
And the men, wherever they go, take wives in the same way. It is the Gobi desert Right Fig. It consists entirely of mountains and sands and valleys. There is nothing at all to eat. After they left Gobi, the first major city they passed was Suchow Dunhuangin Tangut province, where Marco stayed for a year. Marco also noted the center of the asbestos industry in Uighuristan, with its capital Karakhoja; he added that the way to clean asbestos cloth was to throw it into a fire, and that a specimen was brought back from Cathay by the Polos and presented to the Pope.
The fact that Marco was not a historian did not stop him offering a long history about the Mongols. He provided a detailed account of the rise of Mongol and Great Khan's life and empire. He described the ceremonial of a Great Khan's funeral - anyone unfortunate enough to encounter the funeral cortege was put to death to serve their lord in the next world, Mangu Khan's corpse scoring over twenty thousand victims. He told of life on the steppes, of the felt-covered yurt drawn by oxen and camels, and of the household customs.Marco Polo - Kublai VS Ariq - Mongol Strike [HD] - Netflix
What impressed Marco most was the way in which the women got on with the lion's share of the work: A Mongol man could take as many wives as he liked. On the death of the head of the house the eldest son married his father's wives, but not his own mother.
A man could also take on his brother's wives if they were widowed. Marco rounded off his account of Mongol's home life by mentioning that alcoholic standby which had impressed Rubrouck before him: It is called koumiss" Marco's account of the Mongol's life is particularly interesting when compared to the tale of many wonders of Chinese civilization which he was soon to see for himself.
Kublai Khan, though ruling with all the spender of an Emperor of China, never forgot where he had come from: During his long stay in Cathay and Marco had many conversations with Kublai, Marco must have come to appreciate the Great Khan's awareness of his Mongol origins, and the detail in which the Mongols are described in his book suggests that he was moved to make a close study of their ways. Finally the long journey was nearly over and the Great Khan had been told of their approach.
Bushell enables me now to indicate the position of Langtin: The ruins of the city are marked on a Chinese map in my possession Pai-dseng-tzu, i. The remains of the wall are 7 or 8 li in diameter, of stone, and situated about 40 li north-north-west from Dolon-nor. Bushell, Journey outside the Great Wall, in J.
The Travels of Marco Polo/Book 1/Chapter 61
One of the pavilions of the celebrated Yuen-ming-Yuen may give some idea of the probable style, though not of the scale, of Kublai's Summer Palace.
Hiuen Tsang's account of the elaborate and fantastic ornamentation of the famous Indian monasteries at Nalanda in Bahar, where Mr. Broadley has lately made such remarkable discoveries, seems to indicate that these fantasies of Burmese and Chinese architecture may have had a direct origin in India, at a time when timber was still a principal material of construction there: The lintels of the doors were tastefully ornamented, and the roofs covered with shining tiles, the splendours of which were multiplied by mutual reflection and from moment to moment took a thousand forms.
The roof described is of a kind in use in the Indian Archipelago, and in some other parts of Transgangetic India, in which the semi-cylinders of bamboo are laid just like Roman tiles. Rashiduddin gives a curious account of the way in which the foundations of the terrace on which this palace stood were erected in a lake. He says, too, in accord with Polo: Mention is made also in the Altan Tobchi of a cane tent in Shangtu. In fact, it might almost be said that among the Indo-Chinese nations the staff of life is a bamboo!
Scaffolding and ladders, landing-jetties, fishing apparatus, irrigation wheels and scoops, oars, masts, and yards [and in China, sails, cables, and caulking, asparagus, medicine, and works of fantastic art], spears and arrows, hats and helmets, bow, bowstring and quiver, oil-cans, water-stoups and cooking-pots, pipe-sticks [tinder and means of producing fire], conduits, clothes-boxes, pawn-boxes, dinner-trays, pickles, preserves, and melodious musical instruments, torches, footballs, cordage, bellows, mats, paper; these are but a few of the articles that are made from the bamboo;" and in China, to sum up the whole, as Barrow observes, it maintains order throughout the Empire!
Every year he made this passage, and all the Mongol emperors who succeeded him followed his example. On the 7th day of the 7th moon there were libations performed in honour of the ancestors; a shaman, his face to the north, uttered in a loud voice the names of Chingiz Khan and of other deceased Khans, and poured mare's milk on the ground.
The propitious day for the return journey to Peking was also appointed then. Odoric also mentions this practice; and, according to Huc, the Mongol chiefs continued it at least to the time of the Emperor K'ang-hi. Indeed Timkowski speaks of annual tributes of white camels and white horses from the Khans of the Kalkas and other Mongol dignitaries, in the present century.
They were not of the tribes properly called Mongol, but after their submission to Chinghiz they remained closely attached to him. In Chinghiz's victory over Aung-Khan, as related by S.
Setzen, we find Turulji Taishi, the son of the chief of the Oirad, one of Chinghiz's three chief captains; perhaps that is the victory alluded to. The seats of the Oirad appear to have been about the head waters of the Kem, or Upper Yenisei. They made their way to Damascus, where they were well received by the Mameluke Sultan. But their heathenish practices gave dire offence to the Faithful. They were settled in the Sahil, or coast districts of Palestine.
Many died speedily; the rest embraced Islam, spread over the country, and gradually became absorbed in the general population. Their sons and daughters were greatly admired for their beauty. The Christian priests also must then assemble with their thuribles. They then sprinkle new cosmos kumiz on the ground, and make a great feast that day, for according to their calendar, it is their time of first drinking new cosmos, just as we reckon of our new wine at the feast of St.
Bartholomew 24th Augustor that of St. Sixtus 6th Augustor of our fruit on the feast of St. Rockhill gives Rubruck, p. They also pour out kumiz for the Spirits to the four quarters of heaven. The following passage occurs in the narrative of the Journey of Chang Te-hui, a Chinese teacher, who was summoned to visit the camp of Kublai in Mongolia, some twelve years before that Prince ascended the throne of the Kaans: This was the customary sacrifice at that time.
The vessels used were made of birch-bark, not ornamented with either silver or gold.
Such here is the respect for simplicity Then there was every day feasting before the tents for the lower ranks. Beginning with the Prince, all dressed themselves in white fur clothing This sacrifice is performed twice a year. The autumn libation is described by Polo as performed on the 28th day of the August moon, probably because it was unsuited to the circumstances of the Court at Cambaluc, where the Kaan was during October, and the day named was the last of his annual stay in the Mongolian uplands.
Baber tells that among the ceremonies of a Mongol Review the Khan and his staff took kumiz and sprinkled it towards the standards. An Armenian author of the Mongol era says that it was the custom of the Tartars, before drinking, to sprinkle drink towards heaven, and towards the four quarters. Atkinson notices the same practice among the Kirghiz: The time of year assigned by Polo for the ceremony implies some change. Perhaps it had been made to coincide with the Festival of Water Consecration of the Lamas, with which the time named in the text seems to correspond.
On that occasion the Lamas go in procession to the rivers and lakes and consecrate them by benediction and by casting in offerings, attended by much popular festivity. Rubruquis seems to intimate that the Nestorian priests were employed to consecrate the white mares by incensing them. In the rear of Lord Canning's camp in India I once came upon the party of his Shutr Suwars, or dromedary-express riders, busily engaged in incensing with frankincense the whole of the dromedaries, which were kneeling in a circle.
I could get no light on the practice, but it was very probably a relic of the old Mongol custom. The operation was performed by means of a stone of magical virtues, called Yadah or Jadah-Tash, which was placed in or hung over a basin of water with sundry ceremonies. The possession of such a stone is ascribed by the early Arab traveller Ibn Mohalhal to the Kimak, a great tribe of the Turks. In the war raised against Chinghiz and Aung Khan, when still allies, by a great confederation of the Naiman and other tribes inwe are told that Sengun, the son of Aung Khan, when sent to meet the enemy, caused them to be enchanted, so that all their attempted movements against him were defeated by snow and mist.
The fog and darkness were indeed so dense that many men and horses fell over precipices, and many also perished with cold. In another account of apparently the same matter, given by Mir-Khond, the conjuring is set on foot by the Yadachi of Buyruk Khan, Prince of the Naiman, but the mischief all rebounds on the conjurer's own side.
In Tului's invasion of Honan inRashiduddin describes him, when in difficulty, as using the Jadah stone with success. Timur, in his Memoirs, speaks of the Jets using incantations to produce heavy rains which hindered his cavalry from acting against them. A Yadachi was captured, and when his head had been taken off the storm ceased. Baber speaks of one of his early friends, Khwaja Ka Mulai, as excelling in falconry and acquainted with Yadagari or the art of bringing on rain and snow by means of enchantment.
When the Russians besieged Kazan in they suffered much from the constant heavy rains, and this annoyance was universally ascribed to the arts of the Tartar Queen, who was celebrated as an enchantress.
Shah Abbas believed he had learned the Tartar secret, and put much confidence in it. I have seen this done myself by Mongol storm-dispellers.
See Diary, When the storm rumbles, they remain shut up in their huts, full of fear. These Lamas, in spite of the prohibition by the Buddhist creed of bloody sacrifices, used to sacrifice sheep's hearts to Mahakala.
It happened, as it seems, that the heart of an executed criminal was also considered an agreeable offering; and as the offerings could be, after the ceremony, eaten by the sacrificing priests, Marco Polo had some reason to accuse the Lamas of cannibalism. Weather-conjuring stories were also rife in Europe during the Middle Ages. One such is conspicuously introduced in connection with a magical fountain in the romance of the Chevalier au Lyon: The effect foretold in these lines is the subject of a woodcut illustrating a Welsh version of the same tale in the first volume of the Mabinogion.
And the existence of such a fountain is alluded to by Alexander Neckam. De Naturis Rerum, Bk. In the Cento Novelle Antiche also certain necromancers exhibit their craft before the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa apparently: Various other European legends of like character will be found in Liebrecht's Gervasius von Tilbury, pp.
Rain-makers there are in many parts of the world; but it is remarkable that those also of Samoa in the Pacific operate by means of a rain-stone.
Such weather conjurings as we have spoken of are ascribed by Ovid to Circe: Nubila pello, Nubilaque induco; ventos abigoque, vocoque. And by Tibullus to the Saga Eleg. The accusations of cannibalism indeed against the Tibetans in old accounts are frequent, and I have elsewhere see Cathay, p. Della Penna, too, makes a statement which bears curiously on the present passage.
Remarking on the great use made by certain classes of the Lamas of human skulls for magical cups, and of human thigh bones for flutes and whistles, he says that to supply them with these the bodies of executed criminals were stored up of the disposal of the Lamas; and a Hindu account of Tibet in the Asiatic Researches asserts that when one is killed in a fight both parties rush forward and struggle for the liver, which they eat vol.
Thus, without going back to the Anthropophagous Scythians of Ptolemy and Mela, we read in the Relations of the Arab travellers of the ninth century: In such a case he is slaughtered and eaten. In fact, the Chinese eat the flesh of all men who are executed by the sword. Rennie mentions a superstitious practice, the continued existence of which in our own day he has himself witnessed, and which might perhaps have given rise to some such statement as that of the Arab travellers, if it be not indeed a relic, in a mitigated form, of the very practice they assert to have prevailed.
After an execution at Peking certain large pith balls are steeped in the blood, and under the name of blood-bread are sold as a medicine for consumption. It is only to the blood of decapitated criminals that any such healing power is attributed. It has been asserted in the annals of the Propagation de la Foi that the Chinese executioners of M.
Chapdelaine, a missionary who was martyred in Kwang-si in 28th Februarywere seen to eat the heart of their victim; and M. Huot, a missionary in the Yun-nan province, recounts a case of cannibalism which he witnessed. Bishop Chauveau, at Ta Ts'ien-lu, told Mr. Cooper that he had seen men in one of the cities of Yun-nan eating the heart and brains of a celebrated robber who had been executed.
Carstairs Douglas of Amoy also tells me that the like practices have occurred at Amoy and Swatau.
Marco Polo and his travels - caztuning.info
Macgowan, North China Herald, 8th July,pp. Parker China Review, February-March,relates that the inhabitants of a part of Kwang-si boiled and ate a Chinese officer who had been sent to pacify them.
Of this Abaka himself ate, and caused all his barons to partake. And this was in accordance with the custom of the Tartars. And when the Emperor Khan was giving the order for his execution the Tartar ladies and women interposed, and begged that he might be made over to them.
Having got hold of the prisoner they boiled him alive, and cutting his body up into mince-meat gave it to eat to the whole army, as an example to others. Among more remote and ignorant Franks the cannibalism of the Tartars was a general belief.
Ivo of Narbonne, in his letter written during the great Tartar invasion of Europedeclares that the Tartar chiefs, with their dog's head followers and other Lotophagi! The old belief was revived in Prussia during the Seven Years' War, in regard to the Kalmaks of the Russian army; and Bergmann says the old Kalmak warriors confessed to him that they had done what they could to encourage it by cutting up the bodies of the slain in presence of their prisoners, and roasting them!
But Levchine relates an act on the part of the Kirghiz Kazaks which was no jest. They drank the blood of their victim if they did not eat his flesh. There is some reason to believe that cannibalism was in the Middle Ages generally a less strange and unwonted horror than we should at first blush imagine, and especially that it was an idea tolerably familiar in China.
Bazin, in the second part of Chine Moderne, p. Nor is this wonderful in the age that had experienced the horrors of the Mongol wars. That was no doubt a fable which Carpini heard in the camp of the Great Kaan, that in one of the Mongol sieges in Cathay, when the army was without food, one man in ten of their own force was sacrificed to feed the remainder. But we are told in sober history that the force of Tului in Honan, inwas reduced to such straits as to eat grass and human flesh.
At the siege of the Kin capital Kaifongfu, inthe besieged were reduced to the like extremity; and the same occurred the same year at the siege of Tsaichau; and inwhen the rebel general Litan was besieged in Tsinanfu. The Taiping wars the other day revived the same horrors in all their magnitude. And savage acts of the same kind by the Chinese and their Turk partisans in the defence of Kashgar were related to Mr.