The Social Cognitive Theory
The social cognitive approach to personality provides us a clearer view on the effect of other people or external circumstances to the development of our personality traits. Don't miss these related articles: 1Psychodynamic Theories; 2. theory. After that we will try to explain the social cognitive theory of Bandura in detail. factors in influencing the development of personality of an individual. These . causation is concerned with the interactive relation between personal. implications of social–cognitive theories of personality for the question of what constitutes ticulating the strategies of scientific explanation, conceptions of personality structure and dispositions, and the . contribute to the development of personality structures. themselves and their relation to the social environment.
He called the new theory social cognitive theory. Bandura changed the name to emphasize the major role cognition plays in encoding and performing behaviors. In this book, Bandura argued that human behavior is caused by personal, behavioral, and environmental influences. The theory shows how new behavior diffuses through society by psychosocial factors governing acquisition and adoption of the behavior.
Current status[ edit ] Social Cognitive Theory originated in psychology, but based on an unofficial November Google Scholar search, only 2 percent of articles published on SCT are in the pure psychology field. About 20 percent of articles are from Education and 16 percent from Business.
The majority of current research in Health Psychology focuses on testing SCT in behavioral change campaigns as opposed to expanding on the theory. Born inBandura is still influencing the world with expansions of SCT. His recent work, published Mayfocuses on how SCT impacts areas of both health and population in relation to climate change.
On health, Bandura writes that currently there is little incentive for doctors to write prescriptions for healthy behavior, but he believes the cost of fixing health problems start to outweigh the benefits of being healthy. Bandura argues that we are on the cusp of moving from a disease model focusing on people with problems to a health model focusing on people being healthy and SCT is the theory that should be used to further a healthy society.
Specifically on Population, Bandura states that population growth is a global crisis because of its correlation with depletion and degradation of our planet's resources.
Social cognitive theory - Wikipedia
Bandura argues that SCT should be used to increase birth control use, reduce gender inequality through education, and to model environmental conservation to improve the state of the planet. Overview[ edit ] Social cognitive theory is a learning theory based on the idea that people learn by observing others. These learned behaviors can be central to one's personality. While social psychologists agree that the environment one grows up in contributes to behavior, the individual person and therefore cognition is just as important.
People learn by observing others, with the environment, behavior, and cognition acting as primary factors that influence development in a reciprocal triadic relationship. Each behavior witnessed can change a person's way of thinking cognition. Similarly, the environment one is raised in may influence later behaviors. For example, a caregiver's mindset also cognition determines the environment in which their children are raised. The core concepts of this theory are explained by Bandura through a schematization of triadic reciprocal causation,  The schema shows how the reproduction of an observed behavior is influenced by the interaction of the following three determinants: Whether the individual has high or low self-efficacy toward the behavior i.
Get the learner to believe in his or her personal abilities to correctly complete a behavior. The response an individual receives after they perform a behavior i.
Provide chances for the learner to experience successful learning as a result of performing the behavior correctly. Aspects of the environment or setting that influence the individual's ability to successfully complete a behavior i.
Make environmental conditions conducive for improved self-efficacy by providing appropriate support and materials. Ormrod's general principles of social learning, while a visible change in behavior is the most common proof of learning, it is not absolutely necessary.
Social learning theorists believe that because people can learn through observation alone, their learning may not necessarily be shown in their performance. These are interdependent on each other and its influence can be directly linked with individual or group psychological behavior. Human agency[ edit ] Social cognitive theory is proposed in an agentic perspective, which suggests that, instead of being just shaped by environments or inner forces, individuals are self-developing, self-regulating, self-reflecting and proactive.
A group of people work together to achieve the common benefits. Human agency has four core properties: Human capability[ edit ] Evolving over time, human beings are featured with advanced neural systems, which enable individuals to acquire knowledge and skills by both direct and symbolic terms. People are affected not only by direct experience but also indirect events. Instead of merely learning through laborious trial-and-error process, human beings are able to symbolically perceive events conveyed in messages, construct possible solutions, and evaluate the anticipated outcomes.
Individuals can regulate their own intentions and behaviors by themselves. Self-regulation lies on both negative and positive feedback systems, in which discrepancy reduction and discrepancy production are involved. The goal of SCT is to explain how people regulate their behavior through control and reinforcement to achieve goal-directed behavior that can be maintained over time. The first five constructs were developed as part of the SLT; the construct of self-efficacy was added when the theory evolved into SCT.
This refers to the dynamic and reciprocal interaction of person individual with a set of learned experiencesenvironment external social contextand behavior responses to stimuli to achieve goals. Behavioral Capability - This refers to a person's actual ability to perform a behavior through essential knowledge and skills.
In order to successfully perform a behavior, a person must know what to do and how to do it. People learn from the consequences of their behavior, which also affects the environment in which they live. Observational Learning - This asserts that people can witness and observe a behavior conducted by others, and then reproduce those actions.
This is often exhibited through "modeling" of behaviors. If individuals see successful demonstration of a behavior, they can also complete the behavior successfully. Reinforcements - This refers to the internal or external responses to a person's behavior that affect the likelihood of continuing or discontinuing the behavior. Reinforcements can be self-initiated or in the environment, and reinforcements can be positive or negative.
This is the construct of SCT that most closely ties to the reciprocal relationship between behavior and environment. Expectations - This refers to the anticipated consequences of a person's behavior.
Self-Efficacy Theory Self-efficacy beliefs are an important aspect of human motivation and behavior as well as influence the actions that can affect one's life.
Regarding self-efficacy, Bandura explains that it "refers to beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations" p. Self-efficacy has been thought to be a task-specific version of self-esteem Lunenburg, According to Gecaspeople behave in the way that executes their initial beliefs; thus, self-efficacy functions as a self-fulfilling prophecy.
For example, Employee A has high ability and a great deal of experience in creating graphs, but does not have confidence that he can create a high quality graph for an important conference.
Behavioral Change Models
Employee B has only average ability and only a small amount of experience in creating graphs, yet has great confidence that she can work hard to create a high quality graph for the same conference.
Because of Employee A's low self-efficacy for graph creation, he lacks the motivation to create one for the conference and tells his supervisor he cannot complete the task. Employee B, due to her high self-efficacy, is highly motivated, works overtime to learn how to create a high quality graph, presents it during the conference, and earns a promotion.
Self-efficacy has influence over people's ability to learn, their motivation and their performance, as people will often attempt to learn and perform only those task for which they believe they will be successful Lunenburg, Judgments of self-efficacy are generally measured along three basic scales: Self-efficacy magnitude measures the difficulty level e.
How difficult is my class work?
Are the quizzes easy or hard? How confident am I that I can excel at my work tasks? How sure am I that I can climb the ladder of success?
Generality of self-efficacy refers to the "degree to which the expectation is generalized across situations Lunenburg, How sure am I that what I have learned will apply to my new tasks? The basic idea behind the Self-Efficacy Theory is that performance and motivation are in part determined by how effective people believe they can be Bandura, ; as cited in Redmond, The theory is clearly illustrated in the following quote by Mahatma Gandhi: According to Bandura, performance outcomes or past experiences, are the most important source of self-efficacy.
Positive and negative experiences can influence the ability of an individual to perform a given task. If one has performed well at a task previously, he or she is more likely to feel competent and perform well at a similarly associated task Bandura, If an individual performed well in a previous job assignment, the they are more likely to feel confident and have high self-efficacy in performing the task when their manager assigns them a similar task.
However, if these failures are later overcome by conviction, it can serve to increase self-motivated persistence when the situation is viewed as an achievable challenge Bandura, Failures undermine it, especially if failures occur before a sense of efficacy is firmly established" Albert Bandura If a person sees someone similar to them succeed, it can increase their self-efficacy.
However, the opposite is also true; seeing someone similar fail can lower self-efficacy. Increase in self-efficacy example: This is even further strengthened if both have a similar skill set, so a person can see first-hand what they may achieve.
Decrease in self-efficacy example: Smoking cessation program, where, if individuals witness several people fail to quit, they may worry about their own chances of success, leading to low self-efficacy for quitting, or a weight-loss program where others do not achieve the results you are hoping for. A manager telling an employee: I have confidence in you.
Also, the level of credibility directly influences the effectiveness of verbal persuasion; where there is more credibility, there will be a greater influence. In the example above, a pep talk by a manager who has an established, respectable position would have a stronger influence than that of a newly hired manager.
Although verbal persuasion is also likely to be a weaker source of self-efficacy beliefs than performance outcomes, it is widely used because of its ease and ready availability Redmond, Physiological Feedback emotional arousal: People experience sensations from their body and how they perceive this emotional arousal influences their beliefs of efficacy Bandura, Some examples of physiological feedback are: Although this source is the least influential of the four, it is important to note that if one is more at ease with the task at hand they will feel more capable and have higher beliefs of self-efficacy.
The following video is an animation of Albert Bandura giving a lesson in social cognitive theories, particularly self-efficacy.
Throughout this video he discusses the definition of self-efficacy and why it is important.
This video provides an educational and entertaining way to learn about self-efficacy from Albert Bandura himself: Fundamental Human Capabilities According to Pajares, "rooted within Bandura's social cognitive perspective is the understanding that individuals are imbued with certain capabilities that define what it is to be human.
Primary among these are the capabilities to symbolize, plan alternative strategies forethoughtlearn through vicarious experience, self-regulate, and self-reflect.
These capabilities provide human beings with the cognitive means by which they are influential in determining their own destiny. Capability Summary Symbolize Symbols are the vehicle of thought, and it is by symbolizing their experiences that they can provide their lives with structure, meaning, and continuity. Symbolizing also enables people to store the information required to guide future behaviors.
It is through this process that they are able to model observed behavior. Forethought People plan courses of action, anticipate the likely consequences of these actions, and set goals and challenges for themselves to motivate, guide and regulate their activities. It is because of the capability to plan alternative strategies that one can anticipate the consequences of an action without actually engaging in it.
Vicarious learning Permits individuals to learn a novel behavior without undergoing the trial and error process of performing it. In many situation, it keeps them from risking costly and potentially fatal mistakes. The observation is symbolically coded and used as a guide for future action.
Self-regulatory mechanisms The manner and degree to which people self-regulate their own actions and behavior involve the accuracy and consistency of their self-observation and self-monitoring, the judgments they make regarding their actions, choices, and attributions, and, finally, the evaluative and tangible reactions they make to their own behavior through the self-regulatory process.
Self-reflection A prominent feature of social cognitive theory. Through self-reflection, people make sense of their experiences, explore their own cognitions and self-beliefs, engage in self-evaluation, and alter their thinking and behavior accordingly. Personal factors could include such things as skill level and available effort. Self-Efficacy and Academic Success Academic success depends fully on the three assessment processes of self-efficacy.
Analysis of Task Requirements: Student belief to accomplish the task How much time and effort is dedicated to the course work The quality of notes that are taken Attributional Analysis of Experience: This is the personal perception and understanding that a student has in regards to why they accomplished a specific performance level.
Was there enough time put into completing the task at hand - Did the time spent or lack there of affect the outcome? Was there enough energy put into completing the task at hand - Did the student do minimal work or go above and behind to get the end result? This is the student's consideration of personal and situational factors that may affect their education Quality and quantity or work could be affected by surrounds, environment and emotions - Where is studying occurring?
Does the student feel comfortable and confident in completing all tasks at hand? Is the student taking courses at a level in which they can succeed?