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The video game that allows you to play as an ISIS fighter slaughtering Westerners: Islamists give away 'Closing my eyes and holding still. This article considers the process in relation to adventure games, working towards the . ), and the closing-off of “wrong” paths in MI-influenced adventures. Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics, ed. and trans. by Caryl Emerson. . Ben Hudson () has discussed in Bergsonian terms the potential for slapstick. Mary Jane "MJ" Watson is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published . When her relationship with Harry Osborn comes to an end, it has significant impact on Harry, driving him to a . A disbelieving Peter, while arguing with Ben, accidentally strikes Mary Jane. DeFalco, Tom; Gilbert, Laura, ed.
Issue flashbacks to Mary Jane recalling a fight with Peter while he was dressed as Spider-Man, where she said that she did not care where he was and that he had a responsibility to their relationship. Peter begins to explain about his Uncle Benbut Mary Jane interrupts him to say that he cannot let a single moment define his life. Mephisto replies "Agreed, as far as I'm concerned—this never happened.
They talk about how they have been acting towards each other lately and both agree they want to be friends. They recall how Peter missed what was supposed to be their wedding day due to his activities as Spider-Man,  leading MJ to demand that he retire from crimefighting.
His refusal to do so convinced MJ that they must remain unmarried, since any children they might have would be endangered by his being a superhero. Spider-Man saves Mary Jane and dispatches the hitman. Peter insists that Doctor Strange should make people forget he is Spider-Man.
At the last moment, he leaps out of the shield and pulls Mary Jane in with him so she will not forget either. Back in the present, Mary Jane explains that, although she still loves him, she is not strong enough to be at his side.
She tells him he has to move on and find somebody who can be with him. Though initially jealous, MJ decides to respect their relationship, and encourages Peter to reveal his secret identity to her. MJ finds herself caught in a series of riots across the city. MJ encourages Peter to use his civilian disguise when displaying his powers and rally the city against the chaos. She would later attain spider-powers herself and come to the aid of defenseless citizens, her prolonged contact with Peter during their relationship granting her a degree of immunity that protected her from the mutative side-effects of the transformation.
Peter successfully cures all of New York. Conflicted over her lingering feelings for Peter, Carlie confides in Mary Jane, and the two begin to bond over their experiences with Peter. They begin dating again. The real Peter Parker, trapped in his rival's dying body, breaks out of prison and attempts to switch back, only for his body to eventually give out on him before he can complete the procedure.
As a last resort, Peter downloads all of his memories and experiences into Octavius' mind, convincing his foe to develop some sense of responsibility. After one of Octavius' Spider-Bots detect Mary Jane in trouble and saves her from the Vulture gang, Mary Jane moves to kiss him, but Octavius, who has by now developed genuine feelings for her, rebuffs her, and breaks up with her, though vowing to continue to protect her. Mary Jane tells him that she knows Octavius' actions were not Peter's fault, but she cannot let his dual life affect her anymore.
She recognizes and admires the choices Peter has made in his life, but now she wants to build her own life, mostly thanks to the successes she has enjoyed with her nightclub and her new relationship with Ollie. Mary Jane had opened this nightclub after MJ's got destroyed during a superhero battle. When a Belhilio is quickly killed by an energy blast from Madame Masque, people start to run away as Iron Man and Doctor Doom arrive to confront her.
Three days later, Iron Man approaches Mary Jane Watson in Grant Park while she is mourning the loss of her club and offers her a job working for him.
Mary Jane claims to the Board of Directors that she is the new executive administrator, and she and Friday convince the board that the company is in safe hands. Later, she catches up with Betty Brant and Harry Osborn, and the three discover that businessman Augustus Roman is actually the powerful being known as Regent who is imprisoning heroes and villains to add to his own strength.
Mary Jane's attitude towards Peter during her time with him reminds Peter not to let his work take priority over his loved ones. Mary Jane along with Riri Williams and Amanda Armstrong went on a search for him, and it was not until Friday made a calculated analysis that the A.
However, Tony was continually complicating the search by sending them to other locations, believing he needed his privacy until he was finally ready. After a less than stellar Alchemax demonstration, Mary Jane and Peter started being more romantically involved, but as Peter still wore his Spider-Man suit, Mary Jane was conflicted: She has Peter exit her apartment as Spider-Man so if anyone sees they will just think she was talking with him because she knows Stark.
However, because Venom arrived before Red Goblin, the defenses only injured Venom and had no effect on the Red Goblin. Surviving with minor injuries after a short skirmish, MJ urged Peter to absorb the Venom Symbiote, which would give him the edge to stop his arch-enemy. Fresh Start[ edit ] As part of the Fresh Start relaunch event, Peter's personal life took serious knocks in both his civilian and heroic life: However, his personal life picked up when he began reconnecting with Mary Jane more regularly and they talked about recent events.
Finally, Peter told Mary Jane that he needed her in his life once again, prompting Mary Jane to decide on a "fresh start" and resume her romantic relationship with him. Hesitant at first, Mary Jane eventually shares with the group her feelings for Peter, the loss of her job at Stark Industries, and her anxieties and occasional doubts about her importance to him. Afterwards, Jarvis compliments Mary Jane and tells her she is indispensable.
MJ lets Peter know this when they spend the night together shortly after Peter's battle with the Thieves Guild. Peter admits to Mary Jane that he revealed his secret identity once more to Felicia Hardy, but Mary Jane tells him that she is not envious of this and understands. Alternative versions of Mary Jane Watson In addition to her mainstream incarnation, Mary Jane Watson has been depicted in other fictional universes.
Ultimate Spider-Man 7 as well. Unlike her comic book counterpart, she is the niece of police captain Ned Stacy. Mary Jane Watson in Spider-Man: Mary Jane Watson appeared in Spider-Man: The Animated Seriesvoiced by Sara Ballantine.
At the time, Peter's main love interest was Felicia Hardy and Peter did not look forward to meeting Mary Jane but is left speechless upon meeting her. Spider-Man tries to save her but she falls into a dimensional portal created by the Goblin's stolen time dilation accelerator. In season four, she appears alive and well at the site of the battle between the Goblin and Spider-Man. She resumed her relationship with Peter who eventually reveals the secret identity and proposes to her.
In season five's premiere, Mary Jane and Peter subsequently marry and later she's kidnapped by Hydro-Man. While in captivity, Mary Jane discovers that she possesses water-based powers like Hydro-Man, however, she also discovers that she and Hydro-Man are actually clones created by Miles Warrenand that the controversial cloning technology is unstable.
Not soon afterward Mary Jane and Hydro-Man's bodies began suffering from the imperfect cloning process and disintegrate. Mary Jane Watson appears in Spider-Man: She appears as the on-and-off girlfriend of Peter Parker.
Her hair is shorter here than in any other version. She was going to have long hair but there were difficulties rendering it with animation so it was cut down. She later enters a short romantic relationship with Mark Allan. Jonah Jameson on a daily basis. Mary Jane is an occasional target for super-powered characters that Spider-Man encounters. She makes sporadic appearances in Ultimate Spider-Man: Web Warriors consisting of cameo appearances while an alternate version based off her Noir iteration appears as Spider-Man Noir 's potential love interest.
In the episode "The Spider-Verse" [Pt. She has a central role in the three-part "Symbiote Saga". She watches over Harry's comatose status. Mary Jane gets transformed into the Carnage Queen the leader of the Carnage-enveloped Midtown High hive that has also assimilated Anti-Venom's anti-symbiote touch.
Spider-Man, Patrioteer and Agent Venom encounter the Carnage Queen, subsequently fighting with the three young heroes. Spider-Man, Patrioteer and Agent Venom reveal their respective secret identities, giving her the strength to break free of the Carnage symbiote. While given a check-up by S. The episode "Return to the Spider-Verse" [Pt.
The two's fight caused a building to come crashing down, and she went in to rescue some of the residents. Fixit tried to hold the building up to save Mary Jane but failed as she fell during her self-sacrifice. In the series finale, she attends S. Academy as a new student as well. Mary Jane Watson appears in the Spider-Man animated series.
She is first seen in the episode "Venom" as Midtown High's school mascot wearing a full-body tiger suit. She helps Spider-Man defeat the Venom symbiote by engaging the crowd to use their air horns on Venom.
Mary Jane Watson appears in the Marvel Rising: Secret Warriors prequel Initiation voiced again by Tara Strong. Like her Earth counterpart, she is part of a musical band and is one of Gwen Stacy's friends. Desperate to escape her abusivealcoholic father, and to pursue a happier future, she breaks up with Flash after they graduate, and an aspiring actress, waiting tables to support herself.
She dates Harry OsbornPeter's best friend who knows of Peter's interest in her, but notes that Peter has never asked her out. She first develops an attraction to Spider-Man after the latter repeatedly rescues her, first from the Green Goblin and later from thugs in an alley, after which they share a kiss. She also grows closer to Peter, and in response, Harry breaks up with her.
When Norman Osborn deduces Spider-Man's identity, Mary Jane gets kidnapped, and in a recreation of the Goblin's kidnapping of Gwen Stacy from the comics storyline, holds her at the top of a city bridge, but Spider-Man rescues her.
Mary Jane and Peter later share a kiss as she tells Peter that she loves him, but Peter, fearing that a relationship between them would endanger her, rejects her. The heartbroken Mary Jane realizes that her kiss with Peter reminded her of the one she shared with Spider-Man. In the sequel Spider-Man 2Mary Jane, frustrated at Peter's reluctance to be with her and apparent lack of commitment even as a friend which occurs when Spider-Man's crimefighting keeps away from shared activities with herbegins a relationship with John Jameson.
Deciding that being without her is too high a cost, Peter resolves to abandon being Spider-Man, despite the fact that Mary Jane accepts a marriage proposal from John. However, Mary Jane comes to realize that she does not truly love John. Refusing to let the potential dangers get in the way of their happiness, Mary Jane breaks up with John and begins a relationship with Peter.
In the film Spider-Man 3Peter decides to propose to Mary Jane, their future is complicated by professional setbacks suffered by Mary Jane, a rivalry for Peter's affections in the form of Gwen Stacymanipulation by the scheming New Goblin seeking revenge, and by behavioral changes in Peter that are brought on by Peter's encounter with the symbiote.
After Peter disposes of the symbiote which falls into the hands of photographer Eddie Brock to bond with, Venom kidnaps Mary Jane. Spider-Man defeats Venom, destroys the symbiote, and rescues Mary Jane. In the end, Peter and Mary Jane reconcile. In the film's main universe, she was married to Peter Parker prior to her husband's death.
An alternate version of Peter that ends up in the universe was previously married to her counterpart, but they divorced after Peter was afraid to have children with her. After the experience with Miles Morales and a run-in with the widowed Mary Jane, the alternate Peter returns to his own universe and decides to win his former wife back.
In The Amazing Spider-Man vs. She is freed if Kingpin is beaten in a certain amount of time. If the fight takes too long, she falls to her death and, after Kingpin is arrested by the police, Spider-Man vows revenge.
If the player is defeated in battle, then both she and Spider-Man die. Octavius it is later revealed that Mysterio is the actual thief and kidnaps Mary Jane in attempt to get revenge. She is held in the sewers and must be rescued by Spider-Man. Mary Jane forgets to purchase a fish bowl for fish she won at a carnival, and asks Peter Parker to retrieve one for her at the beginning of the game.
In the end, Peter obtains one for her Mysterio's helmet and says "You'll never know the trouble I went through for this. Mary Jane Watson appears in the Spider-Man game based on the film. There is a brief additional storyline where Peter is tempted to abandon interest in Mary Jane due to the possibility of a new relationship with the Black Catbut eventually abandons such a relationship when Peter realizes the importance of civilian life.
She appears several times in the game, helping Peter Parker research and discover information on the villains Spider-Man must fight. The game ends with her talking to Peter. In the game's Nintendo DS version, the player must save an unnamed character who has Mary Jane's clothing and hair color. Battle for New York. Mary Jane Watson appears in Spider-Man 3. Much like in the game based on the first movie, she is not voiced by Kirsten Dunst.
Here, she is voiced by Kari Wahlgren. Web of Shadowsvoiced by Dana Seltzer. In the beginning of the game, she is caught in the crossfire during a fight between Venom and Spider-Man and is put into the hospital.
- Mary Jane Watson
She frequently appeared throughout the game, where her cutscenes are based on the player's choice. In another Red Suit ending, Spider-Man attempted to call her to apologize for his own actions but she did not pick up and left a message on her phone hoping that she'll one day forgive for what had to be done. In one Black Suit ending, Mary Jane abandons Peter completely for the willingness to use the Black Suit even after promising her otherwise, particularly when using its powers to save Black Cat.
Mary Jane Watson is referenced in Spider-Man: In these, a certain freedom is enabled by encouraging the player to try out all available dialogue options and click on any object with no fear of fatally compromising progress in the game. This allows paradoxically, for digressions and incidental dialogue, the only purpose of which is humorous diversion, unlinked to narrative progression.
One post-MI example is Broken Sword: On the other hand, there may be clearly visible objects on the screen which cannot be used, but can be interacted with clicked on to trigger a sometimes object-specific comment on the very nature of their uselessness. Various temptingly useful implements, including a number of sharp tools and weapons which seem specifically designed for the task at hand cutting Guybrush freelitter the ground in the underwater scene in The Secret of Monkey Island SMI.
Yet, the player may also reach this conclusion by elimination — after trying out the ostensibly useful items which litter the scenery. Assorted items that appear to have more obviously useful potential, such as a cutlass, lie scattered around beyond reach, outside the snake. The adventure game genre is structured around detours — puzzles frequently open onto other puzzles, leading to 2, 3, 4-part and upwards puzzles. On the other hand, a multitude of objects which are specifically designed to do the trick are occasionally offered and revealed to be completely useless — discarded in favour of more indirect routes to solution, eschewing economy and appropriateness in favour of more roundabout routes.
There is a self-referential allusion here to the expectations for an adventure game, which would include complex puzzles, and a hint that this may not be one of them.
Henri Bergson sees the comic as arising from the interruption of the mechanical and the failure of predictability — the moment where difference rears its head within repetition, and habitual-mechanical behaviour fails to respond to the specificity of that difference, but rather, continues to apply the learned rules.
We could recall here the formula for parody, involving both difference and repetition Bakhtin,p. The typical route to solution would therefore already involve several stages; yet this moment in MI2 actually multiplies the apparent obstacles the locks and bolts — before causing the apparent obstructions to dissolve.
An overabundance of useless objects and the interruption of productive action may be considered to be a parodic extension and exaggeration of the adventure-game puzzles which constitute the core-gameplay.
Although Sierra On-Line established a formula for graphic adventure along different lines — incorporating scoring-systems, the possibility of death or failure, and the marked passing of time — the rpg-adventure hybrid Quest for Glory II: Trial by Fire Sierra, offers another interesting example of diversion and derailment as a joke on the player.
This springs from a choice offered to the player, and is, however, more final.
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It turns into a short-circuit to a possible early ending which is not completion, yet does not involve death — and proceeds from something presented as a triumph rather than failure. In both cases, however, there is a relationship between interaction and interruption, entailing an effect of disconnection from the unfolding events within the game.
This has implications for the positioning of the player, which also has an impact on the way these moments are experienced. In LucasArts adventures, and adventures following these conventions, the player-character relationship itself tends to be characterized by both connection and disconnection. This is true of games more generally, as Vella points out: This resistance offers a particular kind of dynamic, suggesting a further degree of independence.
In Zork, direct address tended on the other hand to align player with character. Such language from a supposedly winning adventurer! As the examples suggest, the responses are rarely neutral or toneless. A dark chimney leads down. Only Santa Claus climbs down chimneys.
The text-parser sometimes intervenes, making its presence felt. There is a marked note of exasperation and implied tone, for example, if the player attempts to perform an action that would take the characters back to the beginning of the process: The principle of predictability is here exaggerated, parodically highlighted, and commented upon.
The same things would happen all over again, and the player should have learned this. This however, provides the ground for its unpredictable interruption, with repetition being here re-routed into comedy. Nostalgia and Parody In the more recent examples of adventure games considered here, the humor is retained.
Conventions are drawn attention to, and parody becomes a means of engaging with[in] that tradition. In their partially-retrospective approach conventions may be evoked, then playfully reworkedthe implied tone and attitude also tend to suggest a degree of nostalgia.
Fredric Jameson indeed sees them as mutually exclusive, favouring the challenging playfulness of parody, while being heavily critical of nostalgia Jameson,p. In some instances indeed, nostalgia seems to be uppermost. These are set out in a manner that suggests untouchable museum pieces, with which the player cannot interact beyond looking.
Escape from Monkey Island LucasArts, was the last LucasArts adventure game to be released, and it is as humorously self-referential as the other games in the series. Yet it is difficult to shake the feeling that the self-awareness exhibited in this particular game drives home the closing-in of the genre and thus appears to further entrench player-expectations in relation to it.
Expectations are of course still played with. This is, however, rather a case of conventions stripped bare yet faithfully followed, without the turnaround of a punch-line. The game seemed moreover to enact the death of the genre, playfully and a little cynically, by re-presenting the entire franchise as a repackaged commercial enterprise.
Escape from Monkey Island. This history becomes inextricably intertwined and associated with the history of Sam and Max themselves foregrounding an awareness of their place in gaming historyas a younger version of Sam is encountered in the process of creating the arcade machine Bluster Blaster in the later episode Sam and Max Beyond Time and Space: Sam and Max Save the World: Forum activity suggests that these early releases were most eagerly-awaited by fans of the LucasArts games, a niche target audience old enough to remember see also Connors, in Morganti, The nostalgia in this case is, in-keeping with the tone of the series and of the genreplayfully and even affectionately parodic — the game self-consciously works within the genre, while acknowledging distance.
As previously noted, in one striking instance Sam and Max: Possibly as a result, the unremarkable office building becomes a remarkable two-storey tall Pamela Anderson, who mumbles something unintelligible before surfing away on a stray pop-up ad ironically advertising a Pop-Up Blocker.
In the distance, an aerial squadron of potbelly pigs begins performing loop-de-loops. The world appears to be ending. The differentiating factor here is the removal of the graphics — however, this is not a complete separation. As Boym,p. Though the player is constrained by limited command-options, other possibilities are opened up. It is therefore implied that there are certain limitations which circumscribe its graphical successors, but which the text-adventure can cheerfully disregard.
The Third Volition,a game which foregrounds comical excess above all else, the cyberworld of Matt Miller Decker Boss includes a nostalgic journey through selected moments from gaming history. There is a Tank! As in Sam and Max: This text adventure — while being a mini-game integrated into the level — also serves as a potentially looped diversion from the main game, offering the option of replay rather than loading up an earlier save in the case of failure, or moving onto the next stage after successful completion.
Nostalgic appeal, also highlighted, is implicit in the very act of replay. Decade Studios, offers another example where nostalgia and parody converge, centring on an action rarely considered plot-worthy. Achievements are awarded for discovering alternate endings, or diversions from the goal, within this limited scenario where the one ostensible aim is that contained in the title.
The examples considered here have entailed some interruption of action, identification, expectation, or continuity. Comical inconsistencies within the world also persist, and include anachronistic and seemingly displaced elements within the MI games, such as the grog vending-machine.
These are somewhat recuperated within the wider MI-mythos with the framing narrative in MI2. Brecht, for examplep. Of course, active involvement is more readily expected in games, though its relationship with immersion is complex as it is, indeed, in other media.
Hence, player participation becomes complicit in its own constraint. The examples presented here have included occasions where detours have been anticipated, teasingly invited, then blocked with comic effect — highlighting the limitations imposed on the player by the game. Lombard and Ditton claim that: As they note, this is not a pure or straightforward opposition, but it helps to describe a possible source for comic effect, which may arise from instances where the transition itself is marked and exploited for comic potential, and some kind of contrast is momentarily foregrounded, such as in the intersection between graphic and text modes — not merely as juxtaposition of separate elements, but elements which can collide, interact, and intrude upon each other.
As the examples above demonstrate, however, the joke in MI does occasionally rebound on the player. This also suggests a route towards re-turning the joke onto the player. This awareness may also result in an effect of critical self-distancing. The relationship between immersion and the comic could be further explored with reference to an adventure game which appears to break this mould.
This serves as a reminder that there are exceptions — in focusing on particular games and moments in games, my aim has been to identify tendencies within a genre, rather than attempt an exhaustive reading that posits thorough generic homogeneity. On the other hand, the observation regarding Myst does tend to reinforce the suggestion of a correlation between the comic and the interruption of immersion.
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While the self-reflexivity of genre and meta-mediality also function here as part of the gameworld, interruptions becoming part of the gameplay, there is a resistance to complete and seamless reincorporation, highlighting the mediality on a level accessible to the player. Interaction in these moments — which suggest a derailment of seemingly intuitive response or action — manifests itself to the player as inter[rupting]action.
The combined effect of nostalgia and parody is to introduce another intervening distance, and suggests another avenue for engagement through the comic. Such moments of disconnection or interruption, indeed, do not entail an absence of engagement, but rather an avenue towards reconsidering or shifting the means of that engagement.
Once learned, conventions recede from awareness as habit takes over. This article has drawn attention to instances where both manipulation and the underlying mechanical-habitual nature of learned skills are deliberately exposed, with comic effect.
Rather than being merely exceptional instances, it is suggested that these moments become intrinsic to the way we experience the games. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Daniel Vella, Lara Schembri, and Veli-Matti Karhulahti, for reading over this article, and lots of stimulating debate on our shared passion for adventure games. I would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments and suggestions. University of Minnesota Press. The Audience and the Art Machine: In Deleuze and the Schizoanalysis of Visual Art, ed.
Ian Buchanan and Lorna Collins pp. In Wylie Sypher Ed.